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BACKGROUND Fine particulate air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular disease, but previous studies have assessed only mortality and differences in exposure between cities. We examined the association of long-term exposure to particulate matter of less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) with cardiovascular events. METHODS We studied(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic studies have reported increases in the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and myocardial infarction (MI) associated with increases in short-term and daily levels of fine-particulate matter air pollution, suggesting a role for particulate matter in triggering an MI. METHODS We studied the association between onset time of MI and(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To determine whether increased exposure to particulate matter air pollution (PM), measured with personal, residential, or central site monitoring, was associated with pulmonary function decrements in either adults with COPD or children with asthma. PARTICIPANTS We studied 57 adults with or without COPD and 17 children aged 6 to 13 years(More)
As part of a large panel study in Seattle, Washington, we measured levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in children's homes and fixed-site particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 micro m or less (PM(2.5)) outside and inside the homes as well as personal PM(2.5) during winter and spring sessions of 2000-2001. Nineteen subjects 6-13 years of age(More)
There is conflicting evidence regarding the association between different size fractions of particulate matter (PM) and cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality. We investigated the short-term associations of four size fractions of particulate matter (PM(1), PM(2.5), PM(10), and PM(10-2.5)) and carbon monoxide with hospital admissions and emergency(More)
The authors studied the association between incidence of primary cardiac arrest and daily measures of fine particulate matter (</=2.5 micro m) using a case-crossover study of 1,206 Washington State out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (1985-1994) among persons with (n = 774) and without (n = 432) clinically recognized heart disease. The authors compared(More)
BACKGROUND Past studies of air pollution effects among sensitive subgroups have produced inconsistent results. Our objective was to determine relationships between various measures of air pollution and cardiorespiratory effects in older subjects. METHODS We conducted a study that included repeated measurements of pulmonary function (arterial oxygen(More)
Ambient fine particulate matter has been associated with cardiovascular and other diseases in epidemiological studies, and diesel exhaust (DE) is a major source of urban fine particulate matter. Air pollution's cardiovascular effects have been attributed to oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, with resulting perturbation of vascular homeostasis.(More)
Most particulate matter (PM) health effects studies use outdoor (ambient) PM as a surrogate for personal exposure. However, people spend most of their time indoors exposed to a combination of indoor-generated particles and ambient particles that have infiltrated. Thus, it is important to investigate the differential health effects of indoor- and(More)
To determine the relationship of combination antiretroviral therapy and bacterial pneumonia, we assessed incidence of and risk factors for bacterial pneumonia in 1,898 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4 cell counts < 200/mm(3) followed in the Johns Hopkins HIV clinic between 1993 and 1998. A total of 352 episodes of bacterial(More)