Jeffrey H Ennis

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invited speaker: irene Tracey nuffield Professor anaesthetic science & director, oxford centre for fMri of Brain, nuffield department of clinical neurosciences, (head, nuffield division anaesthetics), oxford university, england, uK The ability to experience pain is old and shared across species. It confers an evolutionary advantage and provides a warning of(More)
Current medical literature supports the use of opioid therapy for the treatment of chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). 1,2 However, one of the common side-effects of opioid therapy is physical dependence, which can make it challenging for patients to discontinue or reduce the dose of these medications. It is important to recognize that physical dependence is not(More)
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