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Coffee is often perceived as producing greater pharmacological effects than cola. The present study compared the magnitude and rapidity of peak caffeine levels and subjective effects between coffee and cola. Thirteen users of both coffee and cola (mean daily caffeine consumption = 456 mg) ingested 400 mg caffeine via 12 oz unsweetened coffee, 24 oz(More)
The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effect of jaw relaxation, music and the combination of relaxation and music on postoperative pain after major abdominal surgery during ambulation and rest on postoperative days 1 and 2. Opioid medication provided for pain, following abdominal surgery, does not always give sufficient relief and(More)
Psychometric properties of the Sensation and Distress of Pain Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) are compared to dual numerical rating scales (NRS) with data from a randomized controlled trial of postoperative patients. On postoperative days 1 and 2, 15-minute test-retest reliability was .73 to .82 for the VAS and slightly lower for the NRS, r = .72 to .78, while(More)
One of the most common methods for providing postoperative analgesia is via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Although the typical approach is to administer opioids via a programmable infusion pump, other drugs and other modes of administration are available. This article reviews the history and practice of many aspects of PCA and provides extensive(More)
Cis elements that mediate transcription factor binding are abundant within genomes, but the rules governing occupancy of such motifs in chromatin are not understood. The transcription factor GATA-1 that regulates red blood cell development binds with high affinity to GATA motifs, and initial studies suggest that these motifs are often unavailable for(More)
RNA polymerase II (Pol II) can associate with regulatory elements far from promoters. For the murine beta-globin locus, Pol II binds the beta-globin locus control region (LCR) far upstream of the beta-globin promoters, independent of recruitment to and activation of the betamajor promoter. We describe here an analysis of where Pol II resides within the LCR,(More)
In previous studies of psychomotor performance, the stimulant effects of caffeine differed by personality characteristics. For example, caffeine improved the task performance of extraverts but overaroused introverts and thus impaired their performance. The present study compared the effects of caffeine on subjective arousal among introverts and extraverts.(More)
In development, lineage-restricted transcription factors simultaneously promote differentiation while repressing alternative fates. Molecular dissection of this process has been challenging as transcription factor loci are regulated by many trans-acting factors functioning through dispersed cis elements. It is not understood whether these elements function(More)
Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has been successfully used for genome-wide profiling of transcription factor binding sites, histone modifications, and nucleosome occupancy in many model organisms and humans. Because the compact genomes of prokaryotes harbor many binding sites separated by only few base pairs,(More)
Efficient microbial conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to biofuels is a key barrier to the economically viable deployment of lignocellulosic biofuels. A chief contributor to this barrier is the impact on microbial processes and energy metabolism of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, including phenolic carboxylates, phenolic amides (for(More)