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Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength, the most established cellular model of information storage in the brain, is expressed by an increase in the number of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. However, the source of AMPA receptors mobilized during LTP is unknown. We report that AMPA receptors are transported from recycling endosomes to the plasma(More)
TRPV1 receptors have classically been defined as heat-sensitive, ligand-gated, nonselective cation channels that integrate nociceptive stimuli in sensory neurons. TRPV1 receptors have also been identified in the brain, but their physiological role is poorly understood. Here we report that TRPV1 channel activation is necessary and sufficient to trigger(More)
Learning-related plasticity at excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain requires the trafficking of AMPA receptors and the growth of dendritic spines. However, the mechanisms that couple plasticity stimuli to the trafficking of postsynaptic cargo are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that myosin Vb (MyoVb), a Ca2+-sensitive motor, conducts spine(More)
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) was shown to modulate hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Synaptic plasticity is the cellular mechanism thought to mediate declarative learning and memory in the hippocampus. Although TRPV1 is involved in modulating(More)
The Eysenck Personality Inventory and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale were administered to 80 patients undergoing medical treatment for long standing inflammatory bowel disease: 22 patients were studied before the diagnosis was established and 40 patients with diabetes mellitus served as controls. High neuroticism and introversion scores were more(More)
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) mediate various forms of synaptic plasticity at excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the brain. The eCB anandamide binds to several receptors including the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). We recently identified that TRPV1 is required for long-term depression at excitatory synapses(More)
The role of glutamate as a neurotransmitter in the zebrafish olfactory bulb (OB) was established by examining neuronal activation following 1). glutamate receptor agonist stimulation of isolated olfactory bulbs and 2). odorant stimulation of intact fish. Four groups of neurons (mitral cells, projection neurons; granule cells, juxtaglomerular cells, and(More)
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA neurons appear to be critical substrates underlying the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic system implicated in alcohol reward. The aim of this study was to examine the role of midbrain connexin-36 (Cx36) gap junctions (GJs) in ethanol intoxication and(More)
Tissue obtained from the macula in 10 human eyes (53-77 years) was used for an investigation into the extracellular matrices of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), Bruch's membrane, and the choriocapillaris. The ultrastructural distribution of type IV collagen and laminin was documented using immunogold labelling. Labelling for type IV collagen was(More)
Pharmacological studies of narcoleptic canines indicate that exaggerated pontine cholinergic transmission promotes cataplexy. As disruption of orexin (hypocretin) signaling is a primary defect in narcolepsy with cataplexy, we investigated whether markers of cholinergic synaptic transmission might be altered in mice constitutively lacking orexin receptors(More)