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Stable isotope tracers and indirect calorimetry were used to evaluate the regulation of endogenous fat and glucose metabolism in relation to exercise intensity and duration. Five trained subjects were studied during exercise intensities of 25, 65, and 85% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Plasma glucose tissue uptake and muscle glycogen oxidation(More)
We determined that the variability in the oxygen cost and thus the caloric expenditure of cycling at a given work rate (i.e., cycling economy) observed among highly endurance-trained cyclists (N = 19; mean +/- SE; VO2max, 4.9 +/- 0.1 l.min-1; body weight, 71 +/- 1 kg) is related to differences in their % Type I muscle fibers. The percentage of Type I and II(More)
The effects of three different cadences and five different work rates on Gross (GE) and Delta Efficiency (DE) during cycle ergometry were studied. Fifteen well-trained cyclists exercised for 30 minutes at 60, 80, or 100 RPM on three different occasions. On each occasion, the load was increased every five minutes and corresponded to approximately 50, 60, 70,(More)
We have recently demonstrated that people with a high percentage of Type I muscle fibers display a relatively high muscular efficiency when cycling. These individuals generate a relatively high muscular power output at a given steady-state level of oxygen consumption and caloric expenditure. The purpose of this study was to directly determine the extent to(More)
This study determined if the suppression of lipolysis after preexercise carbohydrate ingestion reduces fat oxidation during exercise. Six healthy, active men cycled 60 min at 44 +/- 2% peak oxygen consumption, exactly 1 h after ingesting 0.8 g/kg of glucose (Glc) or fructose (Fru) or after an overnight fast (Fast). The mean plasma insulin concentration(More)
Endogenous triacylglycerols represent an important source of fuel for endurance exercise. Triacylglycerol oxidation increases progressively during exercise; the specific rate is determined by energy requirements of working muscles, fatty acid delivery to muscle mitochondria, and the oxidation of other substrates. The catecholamine response to exercise(More)
A two-arm, prospective, randomized, controlled trial study was conducted to investigate the effects of movement velocity during progressive resistance training (PRT) on the size and contractile properties of individual fibers from human vastus lateralis muscles. The effects of age and sex were examined by a design that included 63 subjects organized into(More)
Although regular exercise is associated with reduced cardiometabolic disease risk among overweight adults, it remains unclear whether much of the health benefits of exercise are derived from the most recent session(s) of exercise or if they are the result of adaptations stemming from weeks, months, or even years of training. The purpose of this study was to(More)
Dietary carbohydrate restriction (CR) presents a challenge to glucose homeostasis. Despite the popularity of CR diets, little is known regarding the metabolic effects of CR. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in whole body carbohydrate oxidation, glucose availability, endogenous glucose production, and peripheral glucose uptake after dietary(More)
BACKGROUND This study examined the independent association of objectively measured physical activity on insulin resistance while controlling for confounding variables including: cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity, sex, age, and smoking status. METHODS Data were obtained from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, a cross-sectional(More)