Jeffrey F. Horowitz

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Stable isotope tracers and indirect calorimetry were used to evaluate the regulation of endogenous fat and glucose metabolism in relation to exercise intensity and duration. Five trained subjects were studied during exercise intensities of 25, 65, and 85% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Plasma glucose tissue uptake and muscle glycogen oxidation(More)
We determined that the variability in the oxygen cost and thus the caloric expenditure of cycling at a given work rate (i.e., cycling economy) observed among highly endurance-trained cyclists (N = 19; mean +/- SE; VO2max, 4.9 +/- 0.1 l.min-1; body weight, 71 +/- 1 kg) is related to differences in their % Type I muscle fibers. The percentage of Type I and II(More)
We have recently demonstrated that people with a high percentage of Type I muscle fibers display a relatively high muscular efficiency when cycling. These individuals generate a relatively high muscular power output at a given steady-state level of oxygen consumption and caloric expenditure. The purpose of this study was to directly determine the extent to(More)
Fatty acid oversupply is a key mediator of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in obesity, primarily via accumulation of fatty acid metabolites and activation of proinflammatory pathways. Herein, we demonstrate that fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in humans is completely prevented the day after 1 session of endurance exercise. Because skeletal muscle(More)
The effects of three different cadences and five different work rates on Gross (GE) and Delta Efficiency (DE) during cycle ergometry were studied. Fifteen well-trained cyclists exercised for 30 minutes at 60, 80, or 100 RPM on three different occasions. On each occasion, the load was increased every five minutes and corresponded to approximately 50, 60, 70,(More)
Dysregulated lipid metabolism and inflammation are linked to the development of insulin resistance in obesity, and the intracellular accumulation of the sphingolipid ceramide has been implicated in these processes. Here, we explored the role of circulating ceramide on the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Ceramide transported in LDL is elevated in the(More)
This study determined if the suppression of lipolysis after preexercise carbohydrate ingestion reduces fat oxidation during exercise. Six healthy, active men cycled 60 min at 44 +/- 2% peak oxygen consumption, exactly 1 h after ingesting 0.8 g/kg of glucose (Glc) or fructose (Fru) or after an overnight fast (Fast). The mean plasma insulin concentration(More)
Endogenous triacylglycerols represent an important source of fuel for endurance exercise. Triacylglycerol oxidation increases progressively during exercise; the specific rate is determined by energy requirements of working muscles, fatty acid delivery to muscle mitochondria, and the oxidation of other substrates. The catecholamine response to exercise(More)
Although the increase in fatty acid oxidation after endurance exercise training has been linked with improvements in insulin sensitivity and overall metabolic health, the mechanisms responsible for increasing fatty acid oxidation after exercise training are not completely understood. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding(More)
We evaluated lipid metabolism during 90 min of moderate-intensity (50% VO(2) peak) cycle ergometer exercise in five men and five women who were matched on adiposity (24 +/- 2 and 25 +/- 1% body fat, respectively) and aerobic fitness (VO(2) peak: 49 +/- 2 and 47 +/- 1 ml x kg fat-free mass(-1) x min(-1), respectively). Substrate oxidation and lipid kinetics(More)