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Glucose flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway leads to the post-translational modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins by O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). This tandem system serves as a nutrient sensor to couple systemic metabolic status to cellular regulation of signal transduction, transcription, and protein degradation.(More)
The pancreatic beta cell can respond in the long term to hyperglycemia both with an increased capacity for insulin production and, in susceptible individuals, with apoptosis. When glucose-induced apoptosis offsets the increasing beta cell capacity, type 2 diabetes results. Here, we tested the idea that the pathway of glucose metabolism that leads to the(More)
We have previously shown that diabetogenic antibiotic streptozotocin (STZ), an analog of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), inhibits the enzyme O-GlcNAc-selective N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase) which is responsible for the removal of O-GlcNAc from proteins. Alloxan, another beta-cell toxin is a uracil analog. Since the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT)(More)
Transcription factors and RNA polymerase II can be modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) monosaccharides at serine or threonine residues, yet the precise functional roles of this modification are largely unknown. Here, we show that O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the enzyme that catalyzes this posttranslational modification, interacts with a(More)
Over a 2 year period, 63 of 1,459 patients examined by computerized tomography were found to have adrenal masses. In 19 patients (1.3 percent of patients examined and 30 percent of patients with adrenal masses), they were unexpected and did not give rise to symptoms or signs. Three patients were explored. Two of the patients had adrenocortical adenomas and(More)
Dysregulation of the proteasome has been documented in a variety of human diseases such as Alzheimer, muscle atrophy, cataracts etc. Proteolytic activity of 26 S proteasome is ATP- and ubiquitin-dependent. O-GlcNAcylation of Rpt2, one of the AAA ATPases in the 19 S regulatory cap, shuts off the proteasome through the inhibition of ATPase activity. Thus,(More)
KLF4/GKLF normally functions in differentiating epithelial cells, but also acts as a transforming oncogene in vitro. To examine the role of this zinc finger protein in skin, we expressed the wild-type human allele from inducible and constitutive promoters. When induced in basal keratinocytes, KLF4 rapidly abolished the distinctive properties of basal and(More)
The transcription factor Sp1 is important for the expression of many cellular genes. Previously, it was shown that reduced O-glycosylation of Sp1 is associated with increased proteasome susceptibility. Sp1 undergoes proteasome-dependent degradation in cells stressed with glucose deprivation and adenylate cyclase activation, and this process is blocked in(More)
Sp1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that is particularly important for the regulation of TATA-less genes that encode housekeeping proteins. Most growth factors and receptors are also encoded by such genes. Sp1 is multiply O glycosylated by covalent linkage of the monosaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to serine and threonine(More)
The posttranslational modification of eukaryotic intracellular proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) monosaccharides is essential for cell viability, yet its precise functional roles are largely unknown. O-GlcNAc transferase utilizes UDP-GlcNAc, the end product of hexosamine biosynthesis, to catalyze this modification. The availability of(More)