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Glucose flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway leads to the post-translational modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins by O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). This tandem system serves as a nutrient sensor to couple systemic metabolic status to cellular regulation of signal transduction, transcription, and protein degradation.(More)
Transcription factors and RNA polymerase II can be modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) monosaccharides at serine or threonine residues, yet the precise functional roles of this modification are largely unknown. Here, we show that O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the enzyme that catalyzes this posttranslational modification, interacts with a(More)
Over a 2 year period, 63 of 1,459 patients examined by computerized tomography were found to have adrenal masses. In 19 patients (1.3 percent of patients examined and 30 percent of patients with adrenal masses), they were unexpected and did not give rise to symptoms or signs. Three patients were explored. Two of the patients had adrenocortical adenomas and(More)
The pancreatic beta cell can respond in the long term to hyperglycemia both with an increased capacity for insulin production and, in susceptible individuals, with apoptosis. When glucose-induced apoptosis offsets the increasing beta cell capacity, type 2 diabetes results. Here, we tested the idea that the pathway of glucose metabolism that leads to the(More)
We have studied the estrogenic regulation and the potential autocrine role of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. A biologically active apparent mol wt 30 k TGF alpha was identified by gel filtration chromatography in medium conditioned by MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We previously reported induction of TGF(More)
KLF4/GKLF normally functions in differentiating epithelial cells, but also acts as a transforming oncogene in vitro. To examine the role of this zinc finger protein in skin, we expressed the wild-type human allele from inducible and constitutive promoters. When induced in basal keratinocytes, KLF4 rapidly abolished the distinctive properties of basal and(More)
Streptozotocin (STZ), an analogue of GlcNAc, inhibits purified rat spleen O-GlcNAc-selective N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase), the enzyme that removes O-GlcNAc from protein. We have shown previously that STZ increases pancreatic islet O-linked protein glycosylation. In light of these data, we investigated the possibility further that STZ causes(More)
Dysregulation of the proteasome has been documented in a variety of human diseases such as Alzheimer, muscle atrophy, cataracts etc. Proteolytic activity of 26 S proteasome is ATP- and ubiquitin-dependent. O-GlcNAcylation of Rpt2, one of the AAA ATPases in the 19 S regulatory cap, shuts off the proteasome through the inhibition of ATPase activity. Thus,(More)
The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system has been thought to play an important role in normal mammary development and carcinogenesis. To study the role of the EGF receptor (EGFR) in mammary development, we developed a transgenic mouse model in which a C-terminal truncated mouse EGFR (EGFR-TR) was expressed in the mouse mammary epithelium under the control(More)
We have previously shown that diabetogenic antibiotic streptozotocin (STZ), an analog of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), inhibits the enzyme O-GlcNAc-selective N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase) which is responsible for the removal of O-GlcNAc from proteins. Alloxan, another beta-cell toxin is a uracil analog. Since the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT)(More)