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The dynamics of HIV-1 replication in vivo are largely unknown yet they are critical to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Experimental drugs that are potent inhibitors of viral replication can be used to show that the composite lifespan of plasma virus and virus-producing cells is remarkably short (half-life approximately 2 days). Almost complete(More)
AIDS dementia and encephalitis are complications of AIDS occurring most frequently in patients who are immunosuppressed. The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model used in this study was designed to reproducibly induce AIDS in macaques in order to examine the effects of a neurovirulent virus in this context. Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were(More)
The expression level of HLA class-I proteins is known to influence pathological outcomes: pathogens downregulate HLA to evade host immune responses, host inflammatory reactions upregulate HLA, and differences among people with regard to the steady-state expression levels of HLA associate with disease susceptibility. Yet precise quantification of relative(More)
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-causing lentiviruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) effectively evade host immunity and, once established, infections with these viruses are only rarely controlled by immunological mechanisms. However, the initial establishment of infection in the first few days after(More)
The rapid onset of massive, systemic viral replication during primary HIV or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and the immune evasion capabilities of these viruses pose fundamental problems for vaccines that depend upon initial viral replication to stimulate effector T cell expansion and differentiation. We hypothesized that vaccines designed to(More)
Although there has been great progress in treating human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, preventing transmission has thus far proven an elusive goal. Indeed, recent trials of a candidate vaccine and microbicide have been disappointing, both for want of efficacy and concerns about increased rates of transmission. Nonetheless, studies of vaginal(More)
Decline of peak viremia during acute HIV-1 infection occurs before the development of vigorous adaptive immunity, and the level of decline correlates inversely with the rate of AIDS progression, implicating a potential role for the innate immune response in determining disease outcome. The combined expression of an activating natural killer (NK) cell(More)
Envelope glycoprotein (Env) spikes on AIDS retroviruses initiate infection of host cells and are therefore targets for vaccine development. Though crystal structures for partial Env subunits are known, the structure and distribution of native Env spikes on virions is obscure. We applied cryoelectron microscopy tomography to define ultrastructural details of(More)
Whole inactivated viral particles have been successfully used as vaccines for some viruses, but procedures historically used for inactivation can denature virion proteins. Results have been inconsistent, with enhancement of disease rather than protection seen in some notable instances following vaccination. We used the compound 2,2'-dithiodipyridine(More)
An RNA virus, designated hepatitis G virus (HGV), was identified from the plasma of a patient with chronic hepatitis. Extension from an immunoreactive complementary DNA clone yielded the entire genome (9392 nucleotides) encoding a polyprotein of 2873 amino acids. The virus is closely related to GB virus C (GBV-C) and distantly related to hepatitis C virus,(More)