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The formation of reactive oxygen species by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system is thought to be due to autoxidation of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and the nonproductive decay of oxygen-bound cytochrome P450 intermediates. To characterize this process in recombinant microsomal enzymes, we used a highly sensitive hydrogen peroxide assay based on(More)
Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most severe consequences of exposure to paraquat, an herbicide that causes rapid alveolar inflammation and epithelial cell damage. Paraquat is known to induce toxicity in cells by stimulating oxygen utilization via redox cycling and the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. However, the enzymatic activity mediating(More)
Topical application of curcumin, the yellow pigment in turmeric and curry, strongly inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity, DNA synthesis, and tumor promotion in mouse skin (Huang et al., Cancer Res., 48: 5941-5946, 1988). Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid (structurally related dietary(More)
Inhaled nitric oxide is a targeted pulmonary vasodilator that improves clinical outcomes for newborn patients with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and may be effective in treating some premature patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome or lung disease of prematurity. Nitric oxide is now recognized as playing an important role in(More)
Toxic doses of acetaminophen (AA) cause hepatocellular necrosis. Evidence suggests that activated macrophages contribute to the pathogenic process; however, the factors that activate these cells are unknown. In these studies, we assessed the role of mediators released from AA-injured hepatocytes in macrophage activation. Treatment of macrophages with(More)
Macrophages are critical cellular effectors of nonspecific host defense. They are also potent secretory cells releasing an array of mediators including proinflammatory and cytotoxic cytokines and growth factors, bioactive lipids, hydrolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates, each of which has been implicated in tissue injury. The(More)
In the skin, wounding initiates a complex array of physiological processes mediated by growth factors and inflammatory mediators which stimulate tissue repair and protect against infection. We report that primary cultures of human keratinocytes and a mouse keratinocyte cell line respond to the inflammatory stimuli gamma-interferon and lipopolysaccharide or(More)
Acute endotoxemia is associated with production of acute phase proteins which regulate inflammatory responses to tissue injury. Consistent with DNA microarray experiments, we found that acute endotoxemia, induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mice (1 mg/kg) or rats (5 mg/kg), resulted in increased expression of the hepatic acute phase(More)
Catalase is a highly conserved heme-containing antioxidant enzyme known for its ability to degrade hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. In low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, the enzyme also exhibits peroxidase activity. We report that mammalian catalase also possesses oxidase activity. This activity, which is detected in purified catalases, cell(More)
In the present studies, we analyzed the effects of acute endotoxemia on hepatocyte nitric oxide production and functional activity. Treatment of rats with 5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which induces acute endotoxemia, caused an increase in nitric oxide production in the liver, as measured by electron paramagnetic spin trapping, which was evident(More)