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AIMS To determine the potential for Bacillus stearothermophilus cells to form biofilms of significance in dairy manufacture. METHODS AND RESULTS The ability of isolates of B. stearothermophilus from dairy manufacturing plants to attach to stainless steel surfaces was demonstrated by exposing stainless steel samples to suspensions of spores or vegetative(More)
Thermophilic Bacillus species readily attached and grew on stainless steel surfaces, forming mature biofilms of >10(6.0) cells/cm2 in 6 h on a surface inoculated with the bacteria. Clean stainless steel exposed only to pasteurized skim milk at 55 degrees C developed a mature biofilm of >10(6.0) cells/cm2 within 18 h. When bacilli were inoculated onto the(More)
An impedance splitting method was used to detect Bacillus stearothermophilus in suspension and attached to stainless steel surfaces. The effects of bacterial metabolism on the impedance of the culture medium and the ionic layers of the measuring electrodes were recorded using the BacTrac 4000 microorganism growth analyser. Impedance changes were measured at(More)
AIMS This project aimed to investigate the mechanism of attachment of the vegetative cells and spores of thermophilic bacilli to stainless steel with a view to devising strategies to limit biofilm development and survival. METHODS AND RESULTS Spores and vegetative cells of bacterial isolates were exposed to protein denaturing agents (sodium dodecyl(More)
AIMS To determine the mechanism for both the removal and inactivation of 18-h biofilms of a thermophilic Bacillus species that optimally grows at 55 degrees C on stainless steel. METHODS AND RESULTS The cleaning strategies tested were based on biofilm biochemistry and physiology, and focused on the chemistry of the cleaners, the duration and temperature(More)
The quality of milk products is threatened by the formation of biofilms of thermophilic streptococci on the internal surfaces of plate heat exchangers used in milk processing. Although attachment to stainless steel surfaces is one of the first stages in the development of a biofilm, the mechanisms involved in attachment have not been reported. The cell(More)
AIMS To identify the types of micro-organisms involved in the formation of biofilms on dairy ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes and investigate factors affecting the attachment of those isolates. METHODS AND RESULTS Micro-organisms isolated from industrial membranes following standard cleaning were identified using the API culture(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the attachment mechanisms that enable the thermophile Anoxybacillus flavithermus (B12) to attach to stainless-steel surfaces. Passing a B12 culture through a column of stainless-steel chips, collecting the first cells to pass through, re-culturing, and repeating the process six times, resulted in the isolation(More)
AIMS To examine the rate and the extent of spore formation in Anoxybacillus flavithermus biofilms and to test the effect of one key variable - temperature - on spore formation. METHODS AND RESULTS A continuous flow laboratory reactor was used to grow biofilms of the typical dairy thermophile A. flavithermus (strain CM) in skim milk. The reactor was(More)