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Female and male brains differ. Differences begin early during development due to a combination of genetic and hormonal events and continue throughout the lifespan of an individual. Although researchers from a myriad of disciplines are beginning to appreciate the importance of considering sex differences in the design and interpretation of their studies,(More)
Mice, rats, and humans have two types of estrogen receptors, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta). Estrogen receptor-alpha gene-disrupted (ERalpha-disrupted) mice bear two nonfunctional copies of the ERalpha gene. This mutation blocks the synthesis of full-length ERalpha, renders the animals infertile, and inhibits the(More)
Estrogen and progestin receptors (ER, PgR) play a critical role in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions in females. The neuroanatomical distribution of the recently cloned, ER beta, overlaps with both ER alpha and PgR. To determine whether ER beta is found within ER alpha- or PgR-containing neurons in female rat, we used dual label(More)
Ovarian steroid hormones regulate circadian period and phase, but classical receptors for these hormones are absent in the circadian pacemaker localized in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN). In order to determine whether effects of oestrogen may be exerted through steroid-binding systems afferent to the SCN we have performed double label(More)
This study investigated whether the circadian regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) release may be through direct input of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to estrogen receptor (ER)- and/or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-immunoreactive neurons. We used Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) as an anterograde tracer of SCN efferents and(More)
Animals shipped from commercial suppliers to laboratories are exposed to a wide variety of stressors. Female C57Bl6/J mice shipped during the peripubertal/adolescent period (6 wk old) display lower levels of female sexual behavior in response to estradiol and progesterone injections after ovariectomy when tested in adulthood than female mice shipped in(More)
Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations. Female mice, of the inbred C57BL/6 strain, have been shown to display lower levels of sexual receptivity in adulthood when exposed to shipping stress or to an immune challenge during puberty. The present study investigated whether this effect can be extended to CD1 outbred mice(More)
Exposure to stressors during particular stages of development leads to acute and long-term physiological and behavioral changes. We have reported that shipping mice during the peripubertal/adolescent period results in decreased induction of feminine sexual behavior by estradiol and progesterone in adult female mice. To study further the factors involved in(More)
Estrogen and progesterone modulate gene expression in rodents by activation of intracellular receptors in the hypothalamus, which regulate neuronal networks that control female sexual behavior. However, the neurotransmitter dopamine has been shown to activate certain steroid receptors in a ligand-independent manner. A dopamine receptor stimulant and a D1(More)
Vaginal-cervical stimulation (VCS), provided by mating or manual probing, induces many reproductive behavioral and endocrine changes in female rats. These changes include an increase in lordosis duration, heat termination and pseudopregnancy. Electrophysiological and [14C]2-deoxy-D-glucose studies collectively show that neurons in the medial preoptic area,(More)