Jeffrey C. Schank

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Rat pups (Rattus norvegicus) are born blind and deaf yet manage to wriggle about in a huddle, dynamically adjusting their positions and thereby displaying thermoregulation and energy conservation at the level of the group. As pups develop, their activity and mobility outpace the development of their visual and auditory systems making it increasingly(More)
A s a psychologist, my research focuses on the behavior of individual organisms. Such research often requires the integration of causes at multiple levels of organization to explain, predict, and control behavior (e.g., lower levels include genetic, physiological, hormonal, and neurological causes; upper levels include, group, social, and ecological causes(More)
Pseudoreplication is one of the most influential methodological issues in ecological and animal behavior research today. At its inception, the idea of pseudoreplication highlighted important concerns about the design and analysis of experiments in ecology. The doctrine purported to provide a unified view of experimental design and analysis, wherein precise(More)
Starting at infancy and continuing throughout adult life, huddling is a major component of the behavioral repertoire of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Huddling behavior maintains the cohesion of litters throughout early life, and in adulthood, it remains a consistent feature of social behavior of R. norvegicus. During infancy, rats have severely limited(More)
It has long been proposed that cooperation should increase in harsh environments, but this claim still lacks theoretical underpinnings. We modeled a scenario in which benefiting from altruistic behavior was essential to survival and reproduction. We used a spatial agent-based model to represent mutual cooperation enforced by environmental adversity. We(More)
Estrous synchrony was tested using 10 pairs of sibling female rats (Rattus norvegicus). A Monte Carlo bootstrap simulation was used to construct random control groups to avoid previous statistical errors and to test for significance when there are irregular cycles. The 10 pairs of females did not exhibit estrous synchrony. The effect of cycle irregularity(More)
This study investigated behavioral differences between neonatal rats with vasopressin AVP deficiency (di/di) and those with little (+/di) or no deficiency (+/+) using a number of open field metrics. Infant rats (pups) at days 7 and 10 postpartum were videotaped in individual and group trials in a temperature-controlled arena for 12min. Pups were tracked(More)
Infant rats (Rattus norvegicus) placed on a shallow incline (2 degrees, 4 degrees, or 8 degrees) oriented and moved downhill within 1 min; that is, they displayed positive geotaxis. Their downhill translocation increased with angle of inclination. A variety of possible behavioral elements (e.g., initial orientation, rotational movements, ambulatory(More)
This paper critically examines Weller and Weller's preferred last month only method for measuring synchrony. Within-woman and between-women menstrual-cycle variability are distinguished. If there is within-woman cycle variability, synchrony requires a process of entrainment. Between-women cycle variability precludes synchrony between rhythms that are not(More)
This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of male Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) urine on reproductive, developmental, and fecundity parameters in the dam and her female offspring. Twenty-two dams and litters were studied: 11 in male urine and 11 in distilled water conditions. Only dams were exposed to male urine (or distilled water) from days(More)