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Synchrony is surprisingly complex even in the simplest cases. One strategy for simplifying complex phenomena is to define a dimensionless measurement model with the aim of (1) finding order, (2) comparing complex phenomena, and (3) making decisions about statistical significance. However, a model is only as good as its assumptions. In this paper, several(More)
A s a psychologist, my research focuses on the behavior of individual organisms. 1 Such research often requires the integration of causes at multiple levels of organization to explain, predict, and control behavior (e.g., lower levels include genetic, physiological, hormonal, and neurological causes; upper levels include , group, social, and ecological(More)
Estrous synchrony was tested using 10 pairs of sibling female rats (Rattus norvegicus). A Monte Carlo bootstrap simulation was used to construct random control groups to avoid previous statistical errors and to test for significance when there are irregular cycles. The 10 pairs of females did not exhibit estrous synchrony. The effect of cycle irregularity(More)
Since M. K. McClintock (1971) published the 1st study on menstrual synchrony among women, a number of other studies have also reported synchrony using a variety of methods. The most recent reports of synchrony come from A. Weller, L. Weller, and colleagues, and their findings of synchrony have been getting stronger (by their own account). In this article,(More)
This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of male Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) urine on reproductive, developmental, and fecundity parameters in the dam and her female offspring. Twenty-two dams and litters were studied: 11 in male urine and 11 in distilled water conditions. Only dams were exposed to male urine (or distilled water) from days(More)
Rat pups (Rattus norvegicus) are born blind and deaf yet manage to wriggle about in a huddle, dynamically adjusting their positions and thereby displaying thermoregulation and energy conservation at the level of the group. As pups develop, their activity and mobility outpace the development of their visual and auditory systems making it increasingly(More)
Verbal and mathematical models that consider the costs and benefits of behavioral strategies have been useful in explaining animal behavior and are often used as the basis of evolutionary explanations of human behavior. In most cases, however, these models do not account for the effects that group structure and cultural traditions within a human population(More)
Starting at infancy and continuing throughout adult life, huddling is a major component of the behavioral repertoire of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Huddling behavior maintains the cohesion of litters throughout early life, and in adulthood, it remains a consistent feature of social behavior of R. norvegicus. During infancy, rats have severely limited(More)
An agent-based model of infant rat (pup) locomotion and aggregation was developed by modifying a previous model of pup aggregation [Schank, J.C., Alberts, J.R., 2000a. The developmental emergence of coupled activity as cooperative aggregation in rat pups. Proc. R. Soc. London B 267, 2307-2315]. The main difference between the earlier and current models is(More)