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While the effects of contemporaneous local environment on species richness have been repeatedly documented, much less is known about historical effects, especially over large temporal scales. Using fen sites in the Western Carpathian Mountains with known radiocarbon-dated ages spanning Late Glacial to modern times (16 975-270 cal years before 2008), we have(More)
The occurrence of ten butterfly taxa (Clossiana eunomia dawsonii, Clossiana freija, Clossiana frigga, Clossiana titania, Coenonympha inornata, Erebia discoidalis, Incisalia augustinus, Lycaena dorcas, Lycaena epixanthe, Oeneis jutta) was analyzed within three acid peatland habitat types from the Lake Superior drainage basin of northwestern Wisconsin. Both(More)
A phylogenetic analysis of 19 sibling taxa in the Vertigo gouldii group was conducted on 73 individuals sampled across North America using DNA sequence data of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), and the internal transcribed spacer-2 of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (ITS-2) gene. The results of these analyses(More)
Utility corridors are often thought to be disruptive to biodiversity because they cause habitat fragmentation that may lead to increases in predation, parasitism, disease transmittance and vagrant species while decreasing migration rates, gene flow and genetic diversity for interior species. Species with poor dispersal abilities, sedentary lifestyles, and(More)
General statistical patterns in community ecology have attracted considerable recent debate. Difficulties in discriminating among mathematical models and the ecological mechanisms underlying them are likely related to a phenomenon first described by Frank Preston. He noted that the frequency distribution of abundances among species was uncannily similar to(More)
Two interacting forces influence all populations: the Malthusian dynamic of exponential growth until resource limits are reached, and the Darwinian dynamic of innovation and adaptation to circumvent these limits through biological and/or cultural evolution. The specific manifestations of these forces in modern human society provide an important context for(More)
One of the most frequently studied pattern in ecology is the Species Abundance Distribution (SAD) that represents the frequency distribution of species abundances in an assemblage. Two main approaches to displaying such information have been employed: histograms constructed using exponentially increasing bin widths as pioneered by Preston (1948), and plots(More)
The current economic paradigm, which is based on increasing human population, economic development, and standard of living, is no longer compatible with the biophysical limits of the finite Earth. Failure to recover from the economic crash of 2008 is not due just to inadequate fiscal and monetary policies. The continuing global crisis is also due to(More)