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A phylogenetic analysis of 19 sibling taxa in the Vertigo gouldii group was conducted on 73 individuals sampled across North America using DNA sequence data of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), and the internal transcribed spacer-2 of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (ITS-2) gene. The results of these analyses(More)
General statistical patterns in community ecology have attracted considerable recent debate. Difficulties in discriminating among mathematical models and the ecological mechanisms underlying them are likely related to a phenomenon first described by Frank Preston. He noted that the frequency distribution of abundances among species was uncannily similar to(More)
The current economic paradigm, which is based on increasing human population, economic development, and standard of living, is no longer compatible with the biophysical limits of the finite Earth. Failure to recover from the economic crash of 2008 is not due just to inadequate fiscal and monetary policies. The continuing global crisis is also due to(More)
Two interacting forces influence all populations: the Malthusian dynamic of exponential growth until resource limits are reached, and the Darwinian dynamic of innovation and adaptation to circumvent these limits through biological and/or cultural evolution. The specific manifestations of these forces in modern human society provide an important context for(More)
The first organized doping controls were carried out in the 1970s. In 1993, the Czech Antidoping Charter was signed and the Antidoping Committee was established. The medical commission of International Olympic Committee decides, which substances and methods are prohibited. The current classification is as follows: I. prohibited classes of(More)
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