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The long-term success of the World Wide Web depends on fast response time. People use the Web to access information from remote sites, but do not like to wait long for their results. The latency of retrieving a Web document depends on several factors such as the network bandwidth, propagation time and the speed of the server and client computers. Although(More)
OpenFlow is a great concept, but its original design imposes excessive overheads. It can simplify network and traffic management in enterprise and data center environments, because it enables flow-level control over Ethernet switching and provides global visibility of the flows in the network. However, such fine-grained control and visibility comes with(More)
Operators of data centers want a scalable network fabric that supports high bisection bandwidth and host mobility , but which costs very little to purchase and administer. Ethernet almost solves the problem – it is cheap and supports high link bandwidths – but traditional Ethernet does not scale, because its spanning-tree topology forces traffic onto a(More)
Caching in the World Wide Web is based on two critical assumptions: that a significant fraction of requests reac-cess resources that have already been retrieved; and that those resources do not change between accesses. We tested the validity of these assumptions, and their dependence on characteristics of Web resources, including access rate, age at time of(More)
The success of the World-Wide Web is largely due to the simplicity, hence ease of implementation, of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). HTTP, however, makes inefficient use of network and server resources, and adds unnecessary latencies, by creating a new TCP connection for each request. Modifications to HTTP have been proposed that would transport(More)
Code to implement network protocols can be either inside the kernel of an operating system or in user-level processes. Kernel-resident code is hard to develop, debug, and maintain, but user-level implementations typically incur significant overhead and perform poorly. Permission to copy without fee all or part of this material is granted provided that the(More)
General-purpose operating systems provide inadequate support for resource management in large-scale servers. Applications lack sufficient control over scheduling and management of machine resources, which makes it difficult to enforce priority policies, and to provide robust and controlled service. There is a fundamental mismatch between the original design(More)