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Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or made obsolete by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite(More)
OpenFlow is a great concept, but its original design imposes excessive overheads. It can simplify network and traffic management in enterprise and data center environments, because it enables flow-level control over Ethernet switching and provides global visibility of the flows in the network. However, such fine-grained control and visibility comes with(More)
The long-term success of the World Wide Web depends on fast response time. People use the Web to access information from remote sites, but do not like to wait long for their results. The latency of retrieving a Web document depends on several factors such as the network bandwidth, propagation time and the speed of the server and client computers. Although(More)
Operators of data centers want a scalable network fabric that supports high bisection bandwidth and host mobility , but which costs very little to purchase and administer. Ethernet almost solves the problem – it is cheap and supports high link bandwidths – but traditional Ethernet does not scale, because its spanning-tree topology forces traffic onto a(More)
The success of the World-Wide Web is largely due to the simplicity, hence ease of implementation, of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). HTTP, however, makes inefficient use of network and server resources, and adds unnecessary latencies, by creating a new TCP connection for each request. Modifications to HTTP have been proposed that would transport(More)
Code to implement network protocols can be either inside the kernel of an operating system or in user-level processes. Kernel-resident code is hard to develop, debug, and maintain, but user-level implementations typically incur significant overhead and perform poorly. The performance of user-level network code depends on the mechanism used to demultiplex(More)
Middleboxes provide key security and performance guarantees in networks. Unfortunately, the dynamic traffic modifications they induce make it difficult to reason about network management tasks such as access control, accounting, and diagnostics. This also makes it difficult to integrate middleboxes into SDN-capable networks and leverage the benefits that(More)