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Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or made obsolete by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite(More)
OpenFlow is a great concept, but its original design imposes excessive overheads. It can simplify network and traffic management in enterprise and data center environments, because it enables flow-level control over Ethernet switching and provides global visibility of the flows in the network. However, such fine-grained control and visibility comes with(More)
The long-term success of the World Wide Web depends on fast response time. People use the Web to access information from remote sites, but do not like to wait long for their results. The latency of retrieving a Web document depends on several factors such as the network bandwidth, propagation time and the speed of the server and client computers. Although(More)
Middleboxes provide key security and performance guarantees in networks. Unfortunately, the dynamic traffic modifications they induce make it difficult to reason about network management tasks such as access control, accounting, and diagnostics. This also makes it difficult to integrate middleboxes into SDN-capable networks and leverage the benefits that(More)
The HTTP protocol, as currently used in the World Wide Web, uses a separate TCP connection for each file requested. This adds significant and unnecessary overhead, especially in the number of network round trips required. We analyze the costs of this approach and propose simple modifications to HTTP that, while interoperat-ing with unmodified(More)
While cloud computing providers offer guaranteed allocations for resources such as CPU and memory, they do not offer any guarantees for network resources. The lack of network guarantees prevents tenants from predicting lower bounds on the performance of their applications. The research community has recognized this limitation but, unfortunately, prior(More)
Operators of data centers want a scalable network fabric that supports high bisection bandwidth and host mobility , but which costs very little to purchase and administer. Ethernet almost solves the problem – it is cheap and supports high link bandwidths – but traditional Ethernet does not scale, because its spanning-tree topology forces traffic onto a(More)
General-purpose operating systems provide inadequate support for resource management in large-scale servers. Applications lack sufficient control over scheduling and management of machine resources, which makes it difficult to enforce priority policies, and to provide robust and controlled service. There is a fundamental mismatch between the original design(More)
Code to implement network protocols can be either inside the kernel of an operating system or in user-level processes. Kernel-resident code is hard to develop, debug, and maintain, but user-level implementations typically incur significant overhead and perform poorly. The performance of user-level network code depends on the mechanism used to demultiplex(More)