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Members of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of enzymes, which catalyze the reduction of O(2) to reactive oxygen species, have increased in number during eukaryotic evolution. Seven isoforms of the NOX gene family have been identified in mammals; however, specific roles of NOX enzymes in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology have not been fully elucidated.(More)
Although the recruitment of fibroblasts to areas of injury is critical for wound healing, their subsequent apoptosis is necessary in order to prevent excessive scarring. Fibroproliferative diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis, are often characterized by fibroblast resistance to apoptosis, but the mechanism(s) for this resistance remains elusive. Here, we(More)
The alveolar epithelium is characteristically abnormal in fibrotic lung disease, and we recently established a direct link between injury to the type II alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) and the accumulation of interstitial collagen. The mechanisms by which damage to the epithelium induces lung scarring remain poorly understood. It is particularly(More)
Fibroblasts perform critical functions during the normal host response to tissue injury, but the inappropriate accumulation and persistent activation of these cells results in the development of tissue fibrosis. The mechanisms accounting for the aberrant accumulation of fibroblasts during fibrotic repair are poorly understood, although evidence supports a(More)
In an attempt to compare B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) with its normal cellular counterpart, the cell surface phenotype of 100 cases of B-CLL was determined by using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) directed against B cell-restricted and -associated antigens. The majority of B-CLL cells expressed Ia, B4 (CD19), B1 (CD20), B2 (CD21),(More)
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is increased in the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, and animal studies have shown that experimental manipulations of PAI-1 levels directly influence the extent of scarring that follows lung injury. PAI-1 has 2 known properties that could potentiate fibrosis, namely an antiprotease activity that inhibits(More)
Mechanical ventilation using high oxygen tensions is often necessary to treat patients with respiratory failure. Recently, TLRs were identified as regulators of noninfectious oxidative lung injury. IRAK-M is an inhibitor of MyD88-dependent TLR signaling. Exposure of mice deficient in IRAK-M (IRAK-M(-/-)) to 95% oxygen resulted in reduced mortality compared(More)
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mediates growth-inhibitory effects on most target cells via activation of the canonical SMAD signaling pathway. This growth-inhibitory activity may be coupled with cellular differentiation. Our studies demonstrate that TGF-β1 inhibits proliferation of primary, non-transformed human lung fibroblasts in association with(More)
As noted, the unrestrained accumulation of myofibroblasts is a key feature that differentiates fibrotic from physiologic repair. The accrual of these cells represents the combined effects of cell trafficking, proliferation and death. Of these, proliferation has received considerable attention; indeed, fibroblastic foci were initially defined as " small(More)
INTRODUCTION Previous research has demonstrated that chronic cigarette smoking and major depressive disorder (MDD) are each associated with cognitive decrements. Further, these conditions co-occur commonly, though mechanisms in the comorbid condition are poorly understood. There may be distinct, additive, or overlapping factors underlying comorbid cigarette(More)