Jeffrey C. Hall

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The mechanisms by which circadian pacemaker systems transmit timing information to control behavior are largely unknown. Here, we define two critical features of that mechanism in Drosophila. We first describe animals mutant for the pdf neuropeptide gene, which is expressed by most of the candidate pacemakers (LNv neurons). Next, we describe animals in(More)
Regulation of the Drosophila pigment-dispersing factor (pdf) gene products was analyzed in wild-type and clock mutants. Mutations in the transcription factors CLOCK and CYCLE severely diminish pdf RNA and neuropeptide (PDF) levels in a single cluster of clock-gene-expressing brain cells, called small ventrolateral neurons (s-LN(v)s). This clock-gene(More)
A new rhythm mutation was isolated based on its elimination of per-controlled luciferase cycling. Levels of period or timeless clock gene products in the mutant are flat in daily light-dark cycles or constant darkness (although PER and TIM oscillate normally in temperature cycles). Consistent with the fact that light normally suppresses TIM, cryb is an(More)
Subsets of brain neurons expressing the clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim) are involved in the generation of circadian behavioral rhythms. However, current knowledge of projection patterns of these neurons is limited to those immunoreactive to an antibody against a crustacean neuropeptide. The GAL4-expression system was utilized to visualize(More)
Sexual orientation and courtship behavior in Drosophila are regulated by fruitless (fru), the first gene in a branch of the sex-determination hierarchy functioning specifically in the central nervous system (CNS). The phenotypes of new fru mutants encompass nearly all aspects of male sexual behavior. Alternative splicing of fru transcripts produces(More)
Courtship in Drosophila is influenced by a wide variety of genes, in that many different kinds of pleiotropic mutations lead to defective courtship. This may seem to be a truism, but the broad temporal and spatial expression of most of the fly's "neuro genes" makes it difficult to exclude elements of such genes' actions as materially underlying reproductive(More)
We report the identification, characterization, and cloning of a novel Drosophila circadian rhythm gene, dClock. The mutant, initially called Jrk, manifests dominant effects: heterozygous flies have a period alteration and half are arrhythmic, while homozygous flies are uniformly arrhythmic. Furthermore, these flies express low levels of the two clock(More)
Light is a major environmental signal for circadian rhythms. We have identified and analyzed cry, a novel Drosophila cryptochrome gene. All characterized family members are directly photosensitive and include plant blue light photoreceptors. We show that cry transcription is under circadian regulation, influenced by the Drosophila clock genes period,(More)
Mutations in the period (per) gene of Drosophila melanogaster affect both circadian and ultradian rhythms. Levels of per gene product undergo circadian oscillation, and it is now shown that there is an underlying oscillation in the level of per RNA. The observations indicate that the cycling of per-encoded protein could result from per RNA cycling, and that(More)
We report the identification, characterization, and cloning of another novel Drosophila clock gene, cycle (cyc). Homozygous cyc flies are completely arrhythmic. Heterozygous cyc/+ flies are rhythmic but have altered periods, indicating that the cyc locus has a dosage effect on period. The molecular circadian phenotype of homozygous cyc flies is like(More)