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The three main soil-transmitted helminth infections, ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm, are common clinical disorders in man. The gastrointestinal tract of a child living in poverty in a less developed country is likely to be parasitised with at least one, and in many cases all three soil-transmitted helminths, with resultant impairments in physical,(More)
Liver fl uke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus, and Clonorchis sinensis is a major public health problem in East Asia and Eastern Europe. Currently, more than 600 million people are at risk of infection with these trematodes [1]. O. viverrini is endemic in Southeast Asian countries, including Thailand, Lao People's Democratic Republic,(More)
BACKGROUND The three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH) Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale are among the most widespread parasites worldwide. Despite the global expansion of preventive anthelmintic treatment, standard operating procedures to monitor anthelmintic drug efficacy are lacking. The objective(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals living in areas endemic for helminths are commonly infected with multiple species. Despite increasing emphasis given to the potential health impacts of polyparasitism, few studies have investigated the relative importance of household and environmental factors on the risk of helminth co-infection. Here, we present an investigation of(More)
Opisthorchis viverrini is considered among the most important of the food-borne trematodes due to its strong association with advanced periductal fibrosis and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). We investigated the relationship between plasma levels of Interleukin (IL)-6 and the risk of developing advanced fibrosis and bile duct cancer from chronic(More)
BACKGROUND Robust reference values for fecal egg count reduction (FECR) rates of the most widely used anthelmintic drugs in preventive chemotherapy (PC) programs for controlling soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) are still lacking. However, they are urgently needed to ensure detection of reduced(More)
Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) have be identified in saliva, urine and blood, which has led to increasing interest in their development as biomarkers for diverse diseases including cancers. One of the key advantages of c-miRNAs over other biomarkers is the ability to be amplified and quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR). However, at phlebotomy when whole(More)
We examined risk factors associated with Necator americanus infection among persons aged > or =50 years in Hainan Province, People's Republic of China. Age and sex made the most important contributions to the variation in infection intensity (28%-30%), with age alone responsible for 27% of this variation. When stratified by 20-year age intervals, the(More)
We expressed a catalytically active cysteine protease, Ac-CP-2, from the blood-feeding stage of the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and vaccinated dogs with the purified protease. Dogs acquired high-titer, antigen-specific antibody responses, and adult hookworms recovered from the intestines of vaccinated dogs were significantly smaller than hookworms(More)
BACKGROUND Hookworms infect 730 million people in developing countries where they are a leading cause of intestinal blood loss and iron-deficiency anemia. At the site of attachment to the host, adult hookworms ingest blood and lyse the erythrocytes to release hemoglobin. The parasites subsequently digest hemoglobin in their intestines using a cascade of(More)