Jeffrey Bennetzen

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Our knowledge of the structure and composition of genomes is rapidly progressing in pace with their sequencing. The emerging data show that a significant portion of eukaryotic genomes is composed of transposable elements (TEs). Given the abundance and diversity of TEs and the speed at which large quantities of sequence data are emerging, identification and(More)
We report an improved draft nucleotide sequence of the 2.3-gigabase genome of maize, an important crop plant and model for biological research. Over 32,000 genes were predicted, of which 99.8% were placed on reference chromosomes. Nearly 85% of the genome is composed of hundreds of families of transposable elements, dispersed nonuniformly across the genome.(More)
By employing the nuclear DNA of the African rice Oryza glaberrima as a reference genome, the timing, natures, mechanisms, and specificities of recent sequence evolution in the indica and japonica subspecies of Oryza sativa were identified. The data indicate that the genome sizes of both indica and japonica have increased substantially, >2% and >6%,(More)
Plants with a winter growth habit flower earlier when exposed for several weeks to cold temperatures, a process called vernalization. We report here the positional cloning of the wheat vernalization gene VRN2, a dominant repressor of flowering that is down-regulated by vernalization. Loss of function of VRN2, whether by natural mutations or deletions,(More)
Retrotransposons, transposable elements related to animal retroviruses, are found in all eukaryotes investigated and make up the majority of many plant genomes. Their ubiquity points to their importance, especially in their contribution to the large-scale structure of complex genomes. The nature and frequency of retro-element appearance, activation and(More)
Genome size varies greatly across angiosperms. It is well documented that, in addition to polyploidization, retrotransposon amplification has been a major cause of genome expansion. The lack of evidence for counterbalancing mechanisms that curtail unlimited genome growth has made many of us wonder whether angiosperms have a "one-way ticket to genomic(More)
The relative organization of genes and repetitive DNAs in complex eukaryotic genomes is not well understood. Diagnostic sequencing indicated that a 280-kilobase region containing the maize Adh1-F and u22 genes is composed primarily of retrotransposons inserted within each other. Ten retroelement families were discovered, with reiteration frequencies ranging(More)
We report the draft genome sequence of the model moss Physcomitrella patens and compare its features with those of flowering plants, from which it is separated by more than 400 million years, and unicellular aquatic algae. This comparison reveals genomic changes concomitant with the evolutionary movement to land, including a general increase in gene family(More)
Extreme codon bias is seen for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes for the fermentative alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme I (ADH-I) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Over 98% of the 1004 amino acid residues analyzed by DNA sequencing are coded for by a select 25 of the 61 possible coding triplets. These preferred codons tend to be highly homologous(More)
Transposable elements were first discovered in plants because they can have tremendous effects on genome structure and gene function. Although only a few or no elements may be active within a genome at any time in any individual, the genomic alterations they cause can have major outcomes for a species. All major element types appear to be present in all(More)