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Structures such as waves, jets, and vortices have a dramatic impact on the transport properties of a flow. Passive tracer transport in incompressible two-dimensional flows is described by Hamiltonian dynamics, and, for idealized structures, the system is typically integrable. When such structures are perturbed, chaotic trajectories can result which can(More)
High-resolution numerical simulations were made of unforced, planetary-scale fluid dynamics. In particular, the simulation was based on the quasi-geostrophic equations for a Boussinesq fluid in a uniformly rotating and stably stratified environment, which is an idealization for large regions of either the atmosphere or ocean. The solutions show significant(More)
Mutations in DAX1 [dosage-sensitive sex reversal-adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) critical region on the X chromosome gene 1; NR0B1] cause X-linked AHC, a disease characterized by primary adrenal failure in infancy or childhood and reproductive abnormalities later in life. Most of these patients have nonsense or frameshift mutations that cause premature(More)
Using several volume visualization packages including a new package we developed called Volsh, we investigate a 25 GB dataset from a 256 3 computation of decaying quasigeostrophic turbulence. We compare surface fitting and direct volume rendering approaches, as well as a number of techniques for producing feature-revealing spatial cues. We also study the(More)
Kisspeptin is a product of the Kiss1 gene and is expressed in the forebrain. Neurons that express Kiss1 play a crucial role in the regulation of pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion and reproduction. These neurons are the direct targets for the action of estradiol-17beta (E(2)), which acts via the estrogen receptor alpha isoform (ER alpha) to regulate(More)
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mediates estrogen (E2) actions in the brain and is critical for normal reproductive function and behavior. In the classical pathway, ERalpha binds to estrogen response elements (EREs) to regulate gene transcription. ERalpha can also participate in several non-classical pathways, including ERE-independent gene transcription(More)
The translocation of polypeptides across the endoplasmic reticulum is a vectorial process that occurs probably through a protein channel by a mechanism as yet undetermined. Here, we demonstrate bidirectional movement of a 221 residue nascent polypeptide across microsomal membranes and provide evidence suggesting that the retrograde movement is through the(More)
The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) is a potent cytotoxin, specific for Gram-negative bacteria, that also inhibits endotoxin activity by neutralizing isolated bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We have previously shown that an isolated 25 kD N-terminal fragment of human BPI carries all the(More)
In addition to its role in reproduction, estradiol-17β is critical to the regulation of energy balance and body weight. Estrogen receptor α-null (Erα-/-) mutant mice develop an obese state characterized by decreased energy expenditure, decreased locomotion, increased adiposity, altered glucose homeostasis, and hyperleptinemia. Such features are reminiscent(More)
Teleconnections between the midlatitudes of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are diagnosed in National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data and separately in European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis data. The teleconnections are manifested as a small but significant tendency(More)