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PURPOSE To investigate whether d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) functions as an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the multidrug resistance transporter. METHODS Two assays were used to measure the function of TPGS on P-gp function. First, we examined the ability of TPGS to modulate the cytotoxicity of established, cytotoxic,(More)
Saquinavir, a peptidomimetic HIV protease inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in reducing patient viral load and reducing mortality. In this report we investigated whether saquinavir is a substrate for the multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which may reduce the effective intracellular concentration of the drug. G185 cells, which(More)
Cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major phase I drug metabolizing enzyme in humans, and the multidrug efflux pump, MDR or P-glycoprotein (P-gp), are present at high levels in the villus tip enterocytes of the small intestine, the primary site of absorption for orally administered drugs. These proteins are induced or inhibited by many of the same compounds(More)
Vincristine (VCR) is a mainstay of treatment of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors due to its well-defined mechanism of action, demonstrated anticancer activity and its ability to be combined with other agents. VCR is an M-phase cell cycle-specific anticancer drug with activity that is concentration and exposure duration dependent. The(More)
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major phase I drug metabolizing enzyme in humans, and the MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are present at high concentrations in villus tip enterocytes of the small intestine and share a significant overlap in substrate specificity. A large body of research both in vitro and in vivo has established metabolism by(More)
(+)-1,4-Dihydro-7-(trans-3-methoxy-4-methylamino-1-pyrrolidinyl)-4-oxo-1-(2-thiazolyl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid (voreloxin; formerly SNS-595 or AG-7352) is currently under investigation for the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. In vitro voreloxin undergoes minimal cytochrome P450 (P450) and UDP(More)
Previous studies by this laboratory have indicated that expression of the multidrug resistance (mdr) gene can be increased in vivo by exposure to a variety of xenobiotics. Because of the nature of these compounds, it was proposed that mdr gene expression might, at least in part, be regulated by the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. In the present study, we(More)
PURPOSE Grapefruit juice (GJ) is known to increase the oral bioavailability of many CYP3A-substrates by inhibiting intestinal phase-I metabolism. However, the magnitude of AUC increase is often insignificant and highly variable. Since we earlier suggested that CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) form a concerted barrier to drug absorption, we investigated the(More)
We have cloned the complete cDNA encoding the rat mdr2 gene by a combination of library screening and the polymerase chain reaction. The sequence of rat mdr2 cDNA is highly similar to other members of the mdr gene family but the initiation of transcription, tissue distribution and regulation of expression of rat mdr2 diverge from the other isoforms. Primer(More)
P-Glycoprotein the multidrug resistance (mdr) efflux transporter is encoded by class 1 mdr genes (mdr1) in humans and rodent species. In rat liver and in rat hepatocytes in primary culture, expression of mdr1 genes can be induced with the carcinogenic aromatic amine 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF). As a consequence, increased P-glycoprotein levels led to an(More)