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Until half a century ago, associative learning played a fundamental role in theories of perceptual appearance [Berkeley, G. (1709) An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision (Dublin), 1st Ed.]. But starting in 1955 [Gibson, J. J. & Gibson, E. J. (1955) Psychol. Rev. 62, 32-41], most studies of perceptual learning have not been concerned with association or(More)
An optimal linear system for integrating visual cues to 3D surface geometry weights cues in inverse proportion to their uncertainty. The problem of integrating texture and stereo information for judgments of planar surface slant provides a strong test of optimality in human perception. Since the accuracy of slant from texture judgments changes by an order(More)
We investigated what visual information contributes to on-line control of hand movements. It has been suggested that motion information predominates early in movements but that position information predominates for endpoint control. We used a perturbation method to determine the relative contributions of motion and position information to feedback control.(More)
How visual feedback contributes to the on-line control of fast reaching movements is still a matter of considerable debate. Whether feedback is used continuously throughout movements or only in the "slow" end-phases of movements remains an open question. In order to resolve this question, we applied a perturbation technique to measure the influence of(More)
We investigated the ability to use linear perspective to perceive depth from monocular images. Specifically, we focused on the information provided by convergence of parallel lines in an image due to perspective projection. Our stimuli were trapezoid-shaped projected contours, which appear as rectangles slanted in depth. If converging edges of a contour are(More)
This paper presents an integrated, systems-level view of several novel design and control features associated with the biologically inspired, hexapedal, RiSE (Robots in Scansorial Environments) robot. RiSE is the first legged machine capable of locomotion on both the ground and a variety of vertical building surfaces including brick, stucco, and crushed(More)
Recent improvements of a hierarchical ab initio or de novo approach for predicting both alpha and beta structures of proteins are described. The united-residue energy function used in this procedure includes multibody interactions from a cumulant expansion of the free energy of polypeptide chains, with their relative weights determined by Z-score(More)
In this paper, we investigate how symmetry can be used to perceive 3D surface orientation. When a symmetric planar object is viewed from an angle, the projected contour has skew symmetry, which provides partial information about the 3D orientation of the object. For a given skew symmetry, this information can be characterized by a constraint curve of(More)
Recent improvements in the protein-structure prediction method developed in our laboratory, based on the thermodynamic hypothesis, are described. The conformational space is searched extensively at the united-residue level by using our physics-based UNRES energy function and the conformational space annealing method of global optimization. The lowest-energy(More)