OBJECT Hydrocephalus results from abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes or flow patterns. The absorption of CSF is determined largely by pressures within veins and venous sinuses in the head and adjacent to the spine. Most surgical solutions for hydrocephalus involve diversion of excess CSF into alternative absorption sites, and most of these solutions… (More)
Acute hemorrhagic presentation in pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) has become increasingly recognized. This type of presentation poses a clinically emergent situation in those hemorrhages arising in PAs of the cerebellum, the most frequent site, because of the limited capacity of the posterior fossa to compensate for mass effect, predisposing to rapid… (More)
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SOX6, a member of the SOX gene family, plays a key role in the development of several mammalian tissues and organs, including the central nervous system. Specifically, this gene modulates the differentiation and proliferation of interneurons in the medial ganglionic eminence, as well as oligodendrocytes in the spinal cord. We describe the case of a… (More)
OBJECTIVE Eosinophils may affect each stage of tumour development. Many studies have suggested that tumour-associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) is associated with favourable prognosis in some malignant tumours. However, only a few studies exist on TATE in central nervous system (CNS) tumours. Our recent study exhibited eosinophils in atypical… (More)
Angiocentric glioma is a recently recognized benign brain tumor with unknown histogenesis. Most of these tumors are mitotically low in activity in accord with their benign clinical course. However, increased mitotic activity has been noted in several cases, one of which had an ultimately fatal outcome. Here, the authors present a tumor showing angiocentric… (More)
Spinal arteriovenous malformations are rare in children, although perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas (PMAVFs) may account for up to 24% of spinal arteriovenous malformations in this age group. Reported presentations of PMAVFs have included progressive or acute myelopathic symptoms, pain, hematomyelia, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. No known reports of an… (More)
OBJECTIVE Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant tumor of the central nervous system. Its pathogenesis remains unknown. Like glioblastomas, AT/RTs contain brain cancer stem cells (CSCs) that suppress the immunity of patients and are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Considerable infiltration of immune… (More)