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nteractions between plants and insects encompass half of all ecological relationships (Strong et al. 1984), yet natural constraints keep most species from undergoing wide-scale population eruptions. Understanding the dynamics of eruptive species can provide valuable insights into fundamental ecological processes such as ecosystem disturbance, multitrophic(More)
Millions of trees killed by bark beetles in western North America have raised concerns about subsequent wildfire, but studies have reported a range of conclusions, often seemingly contradictory, about effects on fuels and wildfire. In this study, we reviewed and synthesized the published literature on modifications to fuels and fire characteristics(More)
Outbreaks of aggressive bark beetle species cause widespread tree mortality, affecting timber production, wildlife habitat, wildfire, forest composition and structure, biogeochemical cycling, and biogeophysical processes. As a result, agencies responsible for forest management in the United States and British Columbia conduct aerial surveys to map these(More)
Climatic change is likely to affect Pacific Northwest (PNW) forests in several important ways. In this paper, we address the role of climate in four forest ecosystem processes and project the effects of future climatic change on these processes across Washington State. First, we relate Douglas-fir growth to climatic limitation and suggest that where(More)
[1] Disturbance processes of various types substantially modify ecosystem carbon dynamics both temporally and spatially, and constitute a fundamental part of larger landscape-level dynamics. Forests typically lose carbon for several years to several decades following severe disturbance, but our understanding of the duration and dynamics of post-disturbance(More)
[1] Downwelling surface solar radiation is an important input to ecosystem models, and global models require spatially extensive data sets that vary interannually to capture effects that potentially drive changes in ecosystem function. In this paper, I describe and compare solar radiation data sets from two representative sources, National Centers for(More)
[1] Net primary productivity (NPP) in North America was computed for the years 1982 –1998 using the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach (CASA) carbon cycle model. CASA was driven by a new, corrected satellite record of the normalized difference vegetation index at 8-km spatial resolution. Regional trends in the 17-year NPP record varied substantially across the(More)
In the western United States, forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of forcing mechanisms that drive dynamics, including climate change, land-use/land-cover change, atmospheric pollution, and disturbance. To understand the impacts of these stressors, it is crucial to develop assessments of forest properties to establish baselines, determine the extent(More)
[1] Insect outbreaks are significant disturbances in forests of the western United States, with infestation comparable in area to fire. Outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) require life cycles of one year with synchronous emergence of adults from host trees at an appropriate time of year (termed ''adaptive seasonality'') to(More)
About one-third of North America is forested. These forests are of incalculable value to human society in terms of harvested resources and ecosystem services and are sensitive to disturbance regimes. Epidemics of forest insects and diseases are the dominant sources of disturbance to North American forests. Here we review current understanding of climatic(More)