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The associations of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with stroke and with coronary heart disease (CHD) were investigated in nine major prospective observational studies: total 420,000 individuals, 843 strokes, and 4856 CHD events, 6-25 (mean 10) years of follow-up. The combined results demonstrate positive, continuous, and apparently independent associations,(More)
Overviews of clinical trials are an efficient and important means of summarizing information about a particular scientific area. When the outcome is a continuous variable, both treatment effect and variance estimates are required to construct a confidence interval for the overall treatment effect. Often, only partial information about the variance is(More)
Background—Hypertension is a major cause of heart failure (HF) and is antecedent in 91% of cases. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) stipulated assessment of the relative effect of chlorthalidone, lisinopril, and amlodipine in preventing HF. Methods and Results—ALLHAT was a double-blind, randomized,(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of reduction in dietary sodium intake on cardiovascular events using data from two completed randomised trials, TOHP I and TOHP II. DESIGN Long term follow-up assessed 10-15 years after the original trial. SETTING 10 clinic sites in 1987-90 (TOHP I) and nine sites in 1990-5 (TOHP II). Central follow-up conducted by post(More)
Evaluating a clinical trial can be problematic if the studied treatments affect patients in many ways. A possible method for evaluating treatments is to have raters rank all the patients' trial experiences and then test whether the distribution of ranks differ between treatments. Before one can advocate such a procedure, however, one would like to be(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies of dose-response effects of usual sodium and potassium intake on subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) have largely relied on suboptimal measures of intake. METHODS Two trials of sodium reduction and other interventions collected 24-hour urinary excretions intermittently during 18 months from September 17, 1987, to January(More)
The pilot study of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of drug therapy for isolated systolic hypertension. It followed 551 elderly participants with untreated blood pressures of greater than 160/less than 90 mm Hg for an average of 34 months. Mean age of the participants was 72 years; 63%(More)
Although group characteristics are known to influence average blood pressure response to changes in salt intake, predictability of individual responses is less clear. We examined variability and consistency of individual systolic blood pressure responses to changes in salt intake in 188 participants who ate the same diet at higher, medium, and lower (140,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether blood pressure is reduced for at least 6 months with an intervention to lower alcohol intake in moderate to heavy drinkers with above optimal to slightly elevated diastolic blood pressure, and whether reduction of alcohol intake can be maintained for 2 years. DESIGN A randomized controlled trial. METHODS Six hundred(More)