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The ecosystem engineering concept focuses on how organisms physically change the abiotic environment and how this feeds back to the biota. While the concept was formally introduced a little more than 10 years ago, the underpinning of the concept can be traced back to more than a century to the early work of Darwin. The formal application of the idea is(More)
Understanding the nature of neutralization may provide information for crafting improvements in HIV vaccines. Using JR-FL as a prototype primary pseudovirus, we first investigated anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in several neutralization formats designed to elucidate the timing of neutralization. MAb b12 was most effective before receptor binding,(More)
Ecosystem engineers affect other organisms by creating, modifying, maintaining or destroying habitats. Despite widespread recognition of these often important effects, the ecosystem engineering concept has yet to be widely used in ecological applications. Here, we present a conceptual framework that shows how consideration of ecosystem engineers can be used(More)
It is often difficult to accurately assess the long-term effects of invaders because of a lack of data and the changing nature of ecosystems. However, available historical information can be used to make comparisons with current conditions and generate hypotheses that can be tested experimentally. This approach was used to examine changes in the bivalve A(More)
Plant invasions of coastal wetlands are rapidly changing the structure and function of these systems globally. Alteration of litter dynamics represents one of the fundamental impacts of an invasive plant on salt marsh ecosystems. Tamarisk species (Tamarix spp.), which extensively invade terrestrial and riparian habitats, have been demonstrated to enter food(More)
A combination of historical bivalve surveys spanning 30-50 years and contemporary sampling were used to document the changes in bivalve community structure over time at four southern California and one northern Baja California estuaries. While there are limitations to the interpretation of historic data, we observed generally similar trends of reduced total(More)
There are errors in the Funding section and Acknowledgements section. The complete, correct Funding statement is as follows: No external funding was received for this study. Some resources (supplies and research assistance) were donated by T.S. The statements, findings, conclusions and recommendations are those of the researchers and do not necessarily(More)
In order to explore biotic attraction to structure, we examined how the amount and arrangement of artificial biotic stalks affected responses of a shrimp, Palaemon macrodactylus, absent other proximate factors such as predation or interspecific competition. In aquaria, we tested the effect of differing densities of both un-branched and branched stalks,(More)
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