Jeffrey A. Crooks

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Invasions by exotic species represent both threats to ecosystems as well as opportunities to learn more about them. Among the invaders that will have the largest impacts are those that directly modify ecosystems and thus have cascading effects for resident biota. Exotics can affect ecosystems by altering system-level flows, availability, or quality of(More)
The ecosystem engineering concept focuses on how organisms physically change the abiotic environment and how this feeds back to the biota. While the concept was formally introduced a little more than 10 years ago, the underpinning of the concept can be traced back to more than a century to the early work of Darwin. The formal application of the idea is(More)
Ecosystem engineers affect other organisms by creating, modifying, maintaining or destroying habitats. Despite widespread recognition of these often important effects, the ecosystem engineering concept has yet to be widely used in ecological applications. Here, we present a conceptual framework that shows how consideration of ecosystem engineers can be used(More)
Although individual ecosystems vary greatly in the degree to which they have been invaded by exotic species, it has remained difficult to isolate mechanisms influencing invader success. One largely anecdotal observation is that polluted or degraded areas will accumulate more invaders than less-impacted sites. However, the role of abiotic factors alone in(More)
Exotic plants have been demonstrated to be one of the greatest threats to wetlands, as they are capable of altering ecosystem-wide physical and biological properties. One of the most problematic invaders in the western United States has been salt cedar, Tamarix spp., and the impacts of this species in riparian and desert ecosystems have been(More)
Understanding the nature of neutralization may provide information for crafting improvements in HIV vaccines. Using JR-FL as a prototype primary pseudovirus, we first investigated anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in several neutralization formats designed to elucidate the timing of neutralization. MAb b12 was most effective before receptor binding,(More)
It is often difficult to accurately assess the long-term effects of invaders because of a lack of data and the changing nature of ecosystems. However, available historical information can be used to make comparisons with current conditions and generate hypotheses that can be tested experimentally. This approach was used to examine changes in the bivalve(More)
Plant invasions of coastal wetlands are rapidly changing the structure and function of these systems globally. Alteration of litter dynamics represents one of the fundamental impacts of an invasive plant on salt marsh ecosystems. Tamarisk species (Tamarix spp.), which extensively invade terrestrial and riparian habitats, have been demonstrated to enter food(More)
A combination of historical bivalve surveys spanning 30-50 years and contemporary sampling were used to document the changes in bivalve community structure over time at four southern California and one northern Baja California estuaries. While there are limitations to the interpretation of historic data, we observed generally similar trends of reduced total(More)
There are errors in the Funding section and Acknowledgements section. The complete, correct Funding statement is as follows: No external funding was received for this study. Some resources (supplies and research assistance) were donated by T.S. Talley through California Sea Grant Project A/EA-AR-37, Ocean Discovery Institute, and D.M. Talley and N. Reyns(More)