Jeffrey A Bluestone

Learn More
Regulatory T (T reg) cells are critical regulators of immune tolerance. Most T reg cells are defined based on expression of CD4, CD25, and the transcription factor, FoxP3. However, these markers have proven problematic for uniquely defining this specialized T cell subset in humans. We found that the IL-7 receptor (CD127) is down-regulated on a subset of(More)
T cells play a central role in the initiation and regulation of the immune response to antigen. Both the engagement of the TCR with MHC/Ag and a second signal are needed for the complete activation of the T cell. The CD28/B7 receptor/ligand system is one of the dominant costimulatory pathways. Interruption of this signaling pathway with CD28 antagonists not(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a debilitating autoimmune disease that results from T-cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells. Its incidence has increased during the past several decades in developed countries, suggesting that changes in the environment (including the human microbial environment) may influence disease pathogenesis. The incidence(More)
CD28/B7 costimulation has been implicated in the induction and progression of autoimmune diseases. Experimentally induced models of autoimmunity have been shown to be prevented or reduced in intensity in mice rendered deficient for CD28 costimulation. In sharp contrast, spontaneous diabetes is exacerbated in both B7-1/B7-2-deficient and CD28-deficient NOD(More)
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are central to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. However, little is known about the stability of Treg cells in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that a substantial percentage of cells had transient or unstable expression of the transcription factor Foxp3. These 'exFoxp3' T cells had an activated-memory T cell phenotype(More)
Autoimmunity is a complex process that likely results from the summation of multiple defective tolerance mechanisms. The NOD mouse strain is an excellent model of autoimmune disease and an important tool for dissecting tolerance mechanisms. The strength of this mouse strain is that it develops spontaneous autoimmune diabetes, which shares many similarities(More)
The regulation of immune responses to self-antigens is a complex process that involves maintaining self-tolerance while retaining the capacity to mount robust immune responses against invading microorganisms. Over the past few years, many new insights into this process have been gained, leading to the re-emergence of the idea that regulatory T (T(Reg))(More)
The function of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) has been attributed to a growing number of diverse pathways, molecules and processes. Seemingly contradictory conclusions regarding the mechanisms underlying Treg cell suppressive activity have revitalized skeptics in the field who challenge the core validity of the idea of Treg cells as central immune(More)
CD28/B7 blockade leads to exacerbated autoimmune disease in the nonobese diabetic mouse strain as a result of a marked reduction in the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Herein, we demonstrate that CD28 controls both thymic development and peripheral homeostasis of Tregs. CD28 maintains a stable pool of peripheral Tregs by both supporting(More)
The in vivo mechanism of regulatory T cell (Treg cell) function in controlling autoimmunity remains controversial. Here we have used two-photon laser-scanning microscopy to analyze lymph node priming of diabetogenic T cells and to delineate the mechanisms of Treg cell control of autoimmunity in vivo. Islet antigen–specific CD4+CD25− T helper cells (TH(More)