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Many diseases appear to be caused by the misregulation of protein maintenance. Such diseases of protein homeostasis, or "proteostasis," include loss-of-function diseases (cystic fibrosis) and gain-of-toxic-function diseases (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease). Proteostasis is maintained by the proteostasis network, which comprises pathways(More)
The protein components of eukaryotic cells face acute and chronic challenges to their integrity. Eukaryotic protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, enables healthy cell and organismal development and aging and protects against disease. Here, we describe the proteostasis network, a set of interacting activities that maintain the health of proteome and the(More)
Human antibody 2G12 neutralizes a broad range of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates by binding an unusually dense cluster of carbohydrate moieties on the "silent" face of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Crystal structures of Fab 2G12 and its complexes with the disaccharide Manalpha1-2Man and with the oligosaccharide Man9GlcNAc2 revealed(More)
Sexual intercourse is the major route of HIV transmission. To identify endogenous factors that affect the efficiency of sexual viral transmission, we screened a complex peptide/protein library derived from human semen. We show that naturally occurring fragments of the abundant semen marker prostatic acidic phosphatase (PAP) form amyloid fibrils. These(More)
Aberrant protein aggregation is a common feature of late-onset neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, which is associated with the misassembly of the Abeta(1-42) peptide. Aggregation-mediated Abeta(1-42) toxicity was reduced in Caenorhabditis elegans when aging was slowed by decreased insulin/insulin growth factor-1-like signaling (IIS).(More)
Chemical modulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity by HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) is an increasingly important approach for modifying the etiology of human disease. Loss-of-function diseases arise as a consequence of protein misfolding and degradation, which lead to system failures. The DeltaF508 mutation in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance(More)
RNA-protein (RNP) granules have been proposed to assemble by forming solid RNA/protein aggregates or through phase separation into a liquid RNA/protein phase. Which model describes RNP granules in living cells is still unclear. In this study, we analyze P bodies in budding yeast and find that they have liquid-like properties. Surprisingly, yeast stress(More)
Amyloid--a fibrillar, cross beta-sheet quaternary structure--was first discovered in the context of human disease and tissue damage, and was thought to always be detrimental to the host. Recent studies have identified amyloid fibers in bacteria, fungi, insects, invertebrates and humans that are functional. For example, human Pmel17 has important roles in(More)
Transthyretin (TTR) amyloid fibril formation is observed during partial acid denaturation and while refolding acid-denatured TTR, implying that amyloid fibril formation results from the self-assembly of a conformational intermediate. The acid denaturation pathway of TTR has been studied in detail herein employing a variety of biophysical methods to(More)
The pathways that distinguish transport of folded and misfolded cargo through the exocytic (secretory) pathway of eukaryotic cells remain unknown. Using proteomics to assess global cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein interactions (the CFTR interactome), we show that Hsp90 cochaperones modulate Hsp90-dependent stability of(More)