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The spiny projection neurons are by far the most numerous type of striatal neuron. In addition to being the principal projection neurons of the striatum, the spiny projection neurons also have an extensive network of local axon collaterals by which they make synaptic connections with other striatal projection neurons. However, up to now there has been no(More)
The striatum is composed of GABAergic medium spiny neurons with inhibitory collaterals forming a sparse random asymmetric network and receiving an excitatory glutamatergic cortical projection. Because the inhibitory collaterals are sparse and weak, their role in striatal network dynamics is puzzling. However, here we show by simulation of a striatal(More)
Knowledge of the effect of dopamine on corticostriatal synaptic plasticity has advanced rapidly over the last 5 years. We consider this new knowledge in relation to three factors proposed earlier to describe the rules for synaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal pathway. These factors are a phasic increase in dopamine release, presynaptic activity and(More)
Behavioral conditioning of cue-reward pairing results in a shift of midbrain dopamine (DA) cell activity from responding to the reward to responding to the predictive cue. However, the precise time course and mechanism underlying this shift remain unclear. Here, we report a combined single-unit recording and temporal difference (TD) modeling approach to(More)
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and debilitating disorder diagnosed on the basis of persistent and developmentally-inappropriate levels of overactivity, inattention and impulsivity. The etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD is incompletely understood. There is evidence of a genetic basis for ADHD but it is likely to involve(More)
The striatum is the major input nucleus of the basal ganglia. It is thought to play a key role in learning on the basis of positive reinforcement and in action selection. One view of the striatum conceives it as comprising a reiterated matrix of processing units that perform common operations in different striatal regions, namely synaptic plasticity(More)
With the rapid accumulation of neuroscientific data comes a pressing need to develop models that can explain the computational processes performed by the basal ganglia. Relevant biological information spans a range of structural levels, from the activity of neuronal membranes to the role of the basal ganglia in overt behavioural control. This viewpoint(More)
Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is a temporally specific extension of Hebbian associative plasticity that has tied together the timing of presynaptic inputs relative to the postsynaptic single spike. However, it is difficult to translate this mechanism to in vivo conditions where there is an abundance of presynaptic activity constantly impinging(More)
Recent studies suggest new ways to interpret dopaminergic actions in goal-directed performance and habitual responding. In the early stages of learning dopamine plays an essential role, but with extended training dopamine appears to play a decreasing role in response expression. Experimental manipulation of dopamine levels alters the correlation of cortical(More)