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Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient(More)
Many strains of Streptococcus thermophilus synthesize extracellular polysaccharides. These molecules may be produced as capsules that are tightly associated with the cell, or they may be liberated into the medium as a loose slime (i.e., "ropy" polysaccharide). Although the presence of exopolysaccharide does not confer any obvious advantage to growth or(More)
Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32 is used by the dairy industry to modulate cheese flavor. The compilation of a draft genome sequence for this strain allowed us to identify and completely sequence 168 genes potentially important for the growth of this organism in milk or for cheese flavor development. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the(More)
With 2005 retail sales close to $4.8 million, cultured dairy products are driving the growth of dairy foods consumption. Starter cultures are of great industrial significance in that they play a vital role in the manufacturing, flavor, and texture development of fermented dairy foods. Furthermore, additional interest in starter bacteria has been generated(More)
Bitterness is a flavor defect in Cheddar cheese that limits consumer acceptance, and specificity of the Lactococcus lactis extracellular proteinase (lactocepin) is widely believed to be a key factor in the development of bitter cheese. To better define the contribution of this enzyme to bitterness, we investigated peptide accumulation and bitterness in 50%(More)
Fast milk-coagulating (Fmc+) strains of lactococci are known to segregate slow milk-coagulating (Fmc-) variants, which has been attributed to loss of proteinase (Prt) activity encoded by plasmid DNA. It was found that the Fmc- phenotype could also be due to loss of a plasmid encoding an oligopeptide permease (Opp) system. In Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis(More)
Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 is a commercially available strain that is widely used in probiotic preparations. The genome sequence consisted of 2,129,425 bases. Comparative analysis showed that it was unique among L. helveticus strains in that it contained genes encoding mucus-binding proteins similar to those found in Lactobacillus acidophilus.
One of the least controlled defects in Swiss cheese is development of splits that appear during refrigerated storage after cheese is removed from the warm room. Such fissures, or cracks, in the body of the cheese can be as short as 1 cm, or long enough to span a 90-kg block. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment was used to determine the effect of different(More)
Bifidobacteria are important members of the human gut flora, especially in infants. Comparative genomic analysis of two Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains revealed evolution by internal deletion of consecutive spacer-repeat units within a novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat locus, which represented the largest(More)