Jeffery N Keller

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Glutamate transporters are involved in the maintenance of synaptic glutamate concentrations. Because of its potential neurotoxicity, clearance of glutamate from the synaptic cleft may be critical for neuronal survival. Inhibition of glutamate uptake from the synapse has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, glutamate uptake(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is widely held to be a disorder associated with oxidative stress due, in part, to the membrane action of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta). A beta-associated free radicals cause lipid peroxidation, a major product of which is 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE). We determined whether HNE would alter the conformation of synaptosomal membrane(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if increased levels of oxidative damage are present in the brains of persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition that often precedes Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS The authors assessed the amount of protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and malondialdehyde in the superior and middle(More)
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is generally referred to the transitional zone between normal cognitive function and early dementia or clinically probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxidative stress plays a significant role in AD and is increased in the superior/middle temporal gyri of MCI subjects. Because AD involves hippocampal-resident memory(More)
Inhibition of proteasome activity is sufficient to induce neuron degeneration and death; however, altered proteasome activity in a neurodegenerative disorder has not been demonstrated. In the present study, we analyzed proteasome activity in short-postmortem-interval autopsied brains from 16 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and nine age- and sex-matched controls. A(More)
Oxidative stress is implicated in neuronal apoptosis that occurs in physiological settings and in neurodegenerative disorders. Superoxide anion radical, produced during mitochondrial respiration, is involved in the generation of several potentially damaging reactive oxygen species including peroxynitrite. To examine directly the role of superoxide and(More)
In the present study the effects of 17beta-estradiol on microglial activation are described. Estrogen replacement therapy has been associated with decreased severity of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, and estrogens have potent immunosuppressive properties outside of the brain. To determine the role that microglial cells(More)
This study utilized a unilateral controlled cortical impact model of traumatic brain injury to assess disruptions of synaptic homeostasis following trauma. Adult rats were subjected to a moderate (2 mm) cortical deformation and synaptosomes were prepared from the entire ipsilateral (injured) hemisphere or dissected into different regions (hippocampus,(More)
Oxidative stress may contribute to the cellular alterations, which occur as the result of aging, and the nervous system is particularly vulnerable to aging associated oxidative injury. The multicatalytic proteasome (MCP) is responsible for the majority of protein degradation and is sensitive to oxidative stress. To determine if MCP activity is altered(More)
The secreted form of beta-amyloid precursor protein (sAPP alpha) is released from neurons in an activity-dependent manner, and has been reported to modulate neuronal excitability in dissociated hippocampal neurons. We now report that sAPP alpha shifts the frequency dependence for induction of long-term depression of synaptic transmission (LTD) in(More)