Learn More
Glutamate transporters are involved in the maintenance of synaptic glutamate concentrations. Because of its potential neurotoxicity, clearance of glutamate from the synaptic cleft may be critical for neuronal survival. Inhibition of glutamate uptake from the synapse has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, glutamate uptake(More)
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is generally referred to the transitional zone between normal cognitive function and early dementia or clinically probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxidative stress plays a significant role in AD and is increased in the superior/middle temporal gyri of MCI subjects. Because AD involves hippocampal-resident memory(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that neurons die by apoptosis, an active form of cell death involving a relatively stereotyped series of biochemical changes that culminate in nuclear fragmentation, in many different developmental and pathophysiological settings. In contrast to most other cell types, neurons have elaborate morphologies with complex neuritic(More)
Inhibition of proteasome activity is sufficient to induce neuron degeneration and death; however, altered proteasome activity in a neurodegenerative disorder has not been demonstrated. In the present study, we analyzed proteasome activity in short-postmortem-interval autopsied brains from 16 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and nine age- and sex-matched controls. A(More)
The secreted form of beta-amyloid precursor protein (sAPP alpha) is released from neurons in an activity-dependent manner, and has been reported to modulate neuronal excitability in dissociated hippocampal neurons. We now report that sAPP alpha shifts the frequency dependence for induction of long-term depression of synaptic transmission (LTD) in(More)
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) exhibits trophic activity for many populations of neurons in the brain, and can protect those neurons against excitotoxic, metabolic and oxidative insults. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) fibrils accumulate in plaques which are associated with degenerating neurons. A beta can be neurotoxic by(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-related synthetic peptides, the 22 kDa N-terminal thrombin-cleavage fragment of apoE (truncated apoE), and full-length apoE have all been shown to exhibit neurotoxic activity under certain culture conditions. In the present study, protease inhibitors reduced the neurotoxicity and proteolysis of full-length apoE but did not block the(More)
Removal of extracellular glutamate at synapses, by specific high-affinity glutamate transporters, is critical to prevent excitotoxic injury to neurons. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of an array of prominent neurodegenerative conditions that involve degeneration of synapses and neurons in glutamatergic pathways including stroke,(More)
Deposits of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), reduced glucose uptake into brain cells, oxidative damage to cellular proteins and lipids, and excitotoxic mechanisms have all been suggested to play roles in the neurodegenerative process in Alzheimer's disease. Synapse loss is closely correlated with cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that(More)
Oxidative stress may contribute to the cellular alterations, which occur as the result of aging, and the nervous system is particularly vulnerable to aging associated oxidative injury. The multicatalytic proteasome (MCP) is responsible for the majority of protein degradation and is sensitive to oxidative stress. To determine if MCP activity is altered(More)