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Mitochondria play a critical role in mediating both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. The mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) leads to mitochondrial swelling, outer membrane rupture and the release of apoptotic mediators. The mPT pore is thought to consist of the adenine nucleotide translocator, a voltage-dependent anion channel, and cyclophilin D(More)
In response to numerous pathologic stimuli, the myocardium undergoes a hypertrophic response characterized by increased myocardial cell size and activation of fetal cardiac genes. We show that cardiac hypertrophy is induced by the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, which dephosphorylates the transcription factor NF-AT3, enabling it to translocate to(More)
The mammalian heart is a dynamic organ that can grow and change to accommodate alterations in its workload. During development and in response to physiological stimuli or pathological insults, the heart undergoes hypertrophic enlargement, which is characterized by an increase in the size of individual cardiac myocytes. Recent findings in genetically(More)
Calcineurin (PP2B) is a calcium/calmodulin-activated, serine-threonine phosphatase that transmits signals to the nucleus through the dephosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) transcription factors. Whereas calcineurin-NFAT signaling has been implicated in regulating the hypertrophic growth of the myocardium,(More)
Members of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) family of MADS domain transcription factors cannot induce myogenesis in transfected fibroblasts, but when coexpressed with the myogenic basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins MyoD or myogenin they dramatically increase the extent of myogenic conversion above that seen with either myogenic bHLH factor alone.(More)
The protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases functions downstream of nearly all membrane-associated signal transduction pathways. Here we identify PKC-alpha as a fundamental regulator of cardiac contractility and Ca(2+) handling in myocytes. Hearts of Prkca-deficient mice are hypercontractile, whereas those of transgenic mice overexpressing(More)
Mitochondria are critically involved in necrotic cell death induced by Ca(2+) overload, hypoxia and oxidative damage. The mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore - a protein complex that spans both the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes - is considered the mediator of this event and has been hypothesized to minimally consist of the(More)
The heart is a dynamic organ capable of significant architectural remodeling, cellular adaptations, and molecular reprogramming following both physiologic and pathologic stimulation. These whole organ and cellular adaptations are typically initiated by stress-responsive signaling pathways, which serve as central transducers of cardiac hypertrophic growth(More)
Cyclophilin D (CypD, encoded by Ppif) is an integral part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, whose opening leads to cell death. Here we show that interaction of CypD with mitochondrial amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) potentiates mitochondrial, neuronal and synaptic stress. The CypD-deficient cortical mitochondria are resistant to Abeta- and(More)
An emerging concept is that the mammalian myocardium has the potential to regenerate, but that regeneration might be too inefficient to repair the extensive myocardial injury that is typical of human disease. However, the degree to which stem cells or precursor cells contribute to the renewal of adult mammalian cardiomyocytes remains controversial. Here we(More)