Jefferson E. Vallance

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Studies in embryonic development have guided successful efforts to direct the differentiation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into specific organ cell types in vitro. For example, human PSCs have been differentiated into monolayer cultures of liver hepatocytes and pancreatic endocrine cells that have therapeutic efficacy in(More)
Macrophages have a critical role in inflammatory and immune responses through their ability to recognize and engulf apoptotic cells. Here we show that macrophages initiate a cell-death programme in target cells by activating the canonical WNT pathway. We show in mice that macrophage WNT7b is a short-range paracrine signal required for WNT-pathway responses(More)
Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into organ-specific subtypes offers an exciting avenue for the study of embryonic development and disease processes, for pharmacologic studies and as a potential resource for therapeutic transplant. To date, limited in vivo models exist for human intestine, all of which are dependent upon primary(More)
Macrophages have a critical function in the recognition and engulfment of dead cells. In some settings, macrophages also actively signal programmed cell death. Here we show that during developmentally scheduled vascular regression, resident macrophages are an obligatory participant in a signaling switch that favors death over survival. This switch occurs(More)
Hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction requires a large cytoplasmic multi-protein complex that binds microtubules in an Hh-dependent manner. Here, we show that three members of this complex, Costal2 (Cos2), Fused (Fu), and Cubitus interruptus (Ci), bind each other directly to form a trimeric complex. We demonstrate that this trimeric signaling complex exists in(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Cdc42 is a Rho GTPase that regulates diverse cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and polarity. In the intestinal epithelium, a balance among these events maintains homeostasis. We used genetic techniques to investigate the role of Cdc42 in intestinal homeostasis and its mechanisms. METHODS We(More)
Lens regeneration in the adult newt is a classic example of replacing a lost organ by the process of transdifferentiation. After lens removal, the pigmented epithelial cells of the dorsal iris proliferate and dedifferentiate to form a lens vesicle, which subsequently differentiates to form a new lens. In searching for factors that control this remarkable(More)
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at increased risk for colon cancer due to augmented oxidative stress. These patients also have compromised antioxidant defenses as the result of nutritional deficiencies. The micronutrient selenium is essential for selenoprotein production and is transported from the liver to target tissues via selenoprotein P(More)
Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) control the intestinal homeostatic response to inflammation and regeneration. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Cytokine-STAT5 signaling regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis and responses to injury. We link STAT5 signaling to IESC replenishment upon injury by depletion or activation of Stat5 transcription(More)
In multicellular organisms, morphogenesis is a highly coordinated process that requires dynamically regulated adhesion between cells. An excellent example of cellular morphogenesis is the formation of the neural tube from the flattened epithelium of the neural plate. Cysteine-rich motor neuron protein 1 (CRIM1) is a single-pass (type 1) transmembrane(More)