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The vestibular sensory apparatus and associated vestibular nuclei are generally thought to encode head-in-space motion. Angular head-in-space velocity is detected by vestibular hair cells that are located within the semicircular canals of the inner ear. In turn, the afferent fibers of the vestibular nerve project to neurons in the vestibular nuclei, which,(More)
Items are categorized differently depending on the behavioral context. For instance, a lion can be categorized as an African animal or a type of cat. We recorded lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) neural activity while monkeys switched between categorizing the same image set along two different category schemes with orthogonal boundaries. We found that each(More)
The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) effectively stabilizes the visual world on the retina over the wide range of head movements generated during daily activities by producing an eye movement of equal and opposite amplitude to the motion of the head. Although an intact VOR is essential for stabilizing gaze during walking and running, it can be counterproductive(More)
Neural correlates of visual categories have been previously identified in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether individual neurons can represent multiple categories is unknown. Varying degrees of generalization versus specialization of neurons in the PFC have been theorized. We recorded from lateral PFC neural activity while monkeys switched between(More)
Mutations in the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) gene are responsible for a subset of familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using a primary culture model, we have demonstrated that normally nontoxic glutamatergic input, particularly via calcium-permeable AMPA/kainate receptors, is a major factor in the vulnerability of motor neurons to the(More)
Mutations in the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) gene underlie some familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of cortical, brainstem, and spinal motor neurons. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of mutant enzyme, SOD-1 cDNAs bearing mutations found in FALS patients(More)
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is classically associated with stabilizing the visual world on the retina by producing an eye movement of equal and opposite amplitude to the motion of the head. Here we have directly measured the efficacy of VOR pathways during voluntary combined eye-head gaze shifts by recording from individual vestibular neurons in(More)
In everyday life, vestibular receptors are activated by both self-generated and externally applied head movements. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the vestibular system reliably encodes head-in-space motion throughout our daily activities and that subsequent processing by upstream cerebellar and cortical pathways is required to transform this(More)
Cognition has a severely limited capacity: Adult humans can retain only about four items "in mind". This limitation is fundamental to human brain function: Individual capacity is highly correlated with intelligence measures and capacity is reduced in neuropsychiatric diseases. Although human capacity limitations are well studied, their mechanisms have not(More)