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The vestibular sensory apparatus and associated vestibular nuclei are generally thought to encode head-in-space motion. Angular head-in-space velocity is detected by vestibular hair cells that are located within the semicircular canals of the inner ear. In turn, the afferent fibers of the vestibular nerve project to neurons in the vestibular nuclei, which,(More)
Items are categorized differently depending on the behavioral context. For instance, a lion can be categorized as an African animal or a type of cat. We recorded lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) neural activity while monkeys switched between categorizing the same image set along two different category schemes with orthogonal boundaries. We found that each(More)
The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) effectively stabilizes the visual world on the retina over the wide range of head movements generated during daily activities by producing an eye movement of equal and opposite amplitude to the motion of the head. Although an intact VOR is essential for stabilizing gaze during walking and running, it can be counterproductive(More)
In everyday life, vestibular receptors are activated by both self-generated and externally applied head movements. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the vestibular system reliably encodes head-in-space motion throughout our daily activities and that subsequent processing by upstream cerebellar and cortical pathways is required to transform this(More)
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is classically associated with stabilizing the visual world on the retina by producing an eye movement of equal and opposite amplitude to the motion of the head. Here we have directly measured the efficacy of VOR pathways during voluntary combined eye-head gaze shifts by recording from individual vestibular neurons in(More)
Cognition has a severely limited capacity: Adult humans can retain only about four items "in mind". This limitation is fundamental to human brain function: Individual capacity is highly correlated with intelligence measures and capacity is reduced in neuropsychiatric diseases. Although human capacity limitations are well studied, their mechanisms have not(More)
Eye-head (EH) neurons within the medial vestibular nuclei are thought to be the primary input to the extraocular motoneurons during smooth pursuit: they receive direct projections from the cerebellar flocculus/ventral paraflocculus, and in turn, project to the abducens motor nucleus. Here, we recorded from EH neurons during head-restrained smooth pursuit(More)
The ability to distinguish sensory inputs that are a consequence of our own actions from those that result from changes in the external world is essential for perceptual stability and accurate motor control. To accomplish this, it has been proposed that an internal prediction of the consequences of our actions is compared with the actual sensory input to(More)
Neural correlates of visual categories have been previously identified in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether individual neurons can represent multiple categories is unknown. Varying degrees of generalization versus specialization of neurons in the PFC have been theorized. We recorded from lateral PFC neural activity while monkeys switched between(More)