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Our understanding of the development of neurotransmitter systems in the central nervous system has increased greatly over the past three decades and it has become apparent that drug effects on the developing nervous system may differ considerably from effects on the mature nervous system. Recently it has become clear there are significant differences in the(More)
The biosynthesis of norepinephrine occurs through a multi-enzymatic pathway that includes the enzyme dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH). Mice with a homozygous deletion of DBH (Dbh-/-) have a selective and complete absence of norepinephrine. The purpose of this study was to assess the expression of alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta adrenergic receptors (alpha1-AR,(More)
During development norepinephrine plays a role in determining the morphologic organization of the CNS and the density and future responsiveness of adrenergic receptors. alpha-2 Adrenergic receptors, one of three adrenergic receptor types, regulate important adult CNS functions and may have a distinct role during development. We examined alpha-2 receptor(More)
Structural changes in brain circuits active during learning are thought to be important for long-term memory storage. If these changes support long-term information storage, they might be expected to be present at distant time points after learning, as well as to be specific to the circuit activated with learning, and sensitive to the contingencies of the(More)
Empathy is an important psychological capacity that involves the ability to recognize and share emotions with others. In humans, empathy for others is facilitated by having had a similar prior experience. It increases with the intensity of distress that observers believe is occurring to others, and is associated with acute emotional responses to witnessing(More)
The norepinephrine transporter (NET) plays a major role in regulating the actions of norepinephrine by removing norepinephrine from the synapse. Many studies suggest norepinephrine plays an important role in regulating development of the CNS, pointing to NET as an important factor in this process. We examined the ontogeny of NET expression in rat brain at(More)
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (A2AR) regulate multiple brain functions and are enriched in developing brain. Studies demonstrate norepinephrine (NE) plays a role in regulating brain maturation, suggesting it is important in A2AR development. To investigate this we employed models of NE absence and excess during brain development. For decreases in NE we used(More)
Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter with peripheral and central actions mediated by alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta-adrenergic receptors. In this paper, we report an expression of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in developing white matter tracts as revealed by [(3)H]RX821002 autoradiography. In rats, these receptors are present in the corpus callosum and anterior(More)
The Cook and Medley (1954) Hostility (Ho) scale has been used in several important studies evaluating potential health consequences of hostility. A relative lack of compelling information about the construct validity of the Ho scale, however, has raised concerns about the appropriate interpretation of previous research. In this study, 60 married couples(More)
Activity regulated cytoskeletal protein (Arc), c-fos and zif268 are immediate early genes (IEGs) important for adult brain plasticity. We examined developmental expression of these IEGs and the effect of neonatal noradrenergic lesion on their expression in developing and mature brain. N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4), a(More)