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Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows trans-acting factors present in the mammalian oocyte to reprogram somatic cell nuclei to an undifferentiated state. We show that four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28) are sufficient to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells that exhibit the essential characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells.(More)
We mapped Polycomb-associated H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and Trithorax-associated H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) across the whole genome in human embryonic stem (ES) cells. The vast majority of H3K27me3 colocalized on genes modified with H3K4me3. These commodified genes displayed low expression levels and were enriched in developmental function. Another(More)
The salamander has the remarkable ability to regenerate its limb after amputation. Cells at the site of amputation form a blastema and then proliferate and differentiate to regrow the limb. To better understand this process, we performed deep RNA sequencing of the blastema over a time course in the axolotl, a species whose genome has not been sequenced.(More)
We describe the integration of microfluidic selection with high-throughput DNA sequencing technology for rapid and efficient discovery of nucleic acid aptamers. The Quantitative Selection of Aptamers through Sequencing method tracks the copy number and enrichment-fold of more than 10 million individual sequences through multiple selection rounds, enabling(More)
Human embryonic stem (ES) cells exhibit a shorter G(1) cell cycle phase than most somatic cells. Here, we examine the role of an abundant, human ES cell-enriched microRNA, miR-92b, in cell cycle distribution. Inhibition of miR-92b in human ES cells results in a greater number of cells in the G(1) phase and a lower number in the S phase. Conversely,(More)
Well-defined relationships between oligonucleotide properties and hybridization signal intensities (HSI) can aid chip design, data normalization and true biological knowledge discovery. We clarify these relationships using the data from two microarray experiments containing over three million probes from 48 high-density chips. We find that melting(More)
Gene-corrected patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells offer a unique approach to gene therapy. Here, we begin to assess whether the mutational load acquired during gene correction of iPS cells is compatible with use in the treatment of genetic causes of retinal degenerative disease. We isolated iPS cells free of transgene sequences from a(More)
The Rat Genome Database (RGD) (http://rgd.mcw.edu) aims to meet the needs of its community by providing genetic and genomic infrastructure while also annotating the strengths of rat research: biochemistry, nutrition, pharmacology and physiology. Here, we report on RGD's development towards creating a phenome database. Recent developments can be categorized(More)
Aptamers are promising affinity reagents that are potentially well suited for high-throughput discovery, as they are chemically synthesized and discovered via completely in vitro selection processes. Recent advancements in selection, sequencing, and the use of modified bases have improved aptamer quality, but the overall process of aptamer generation(More)
The laboratory rat is a major model organism for systems biology. To complement the cornucopia of physiological and pharmacological data generated in the rat, a large genomic toolset has been developed, culminating in the release of the rat draft genome sequence. The rat draft sequence used a variety of assembly packages, as well as data from the Radiation(More)