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This review has examined a number of issues surrounding the use of carboxylesterase activity in environmental monitoring. It is clear that carboxylesterases are important enzymes that deserve increased study. This class of enzymes appears to have promise for employment in environmental monitoring with a number of organisms and testing scenarios, and it is(More)
Recent agrochemical usage patterns suggest that the use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides will decrease, resulting in a concomitant increase in pyrethroid usage. Pyrethroids are known for their potential toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and many fish species. Current toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques are able to detect OPs, but have not(More)
Pyrethroid insecticides are known for their potential toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and many fish species. A significant problem in the study of pyrethroid toxicity is their extreme hydrophobicity. They can adsorb to test container surfaces and many studies, therefore, report pyrethroid levels as nominal water concentrations. In this study, pyrethroid(More)
Irrigation and storm water runoff from agricultural fields has the potential to cause impairment to downstream aquatic receiving systems. Over the last several years, scientists have discovered the benefit of using edge-of-field practices, such as vegetated agricultural drainage ditches, in the mitigation of pesticides and sediment. After demonstrating this(More)
Because crossed immunoelectrophoresis (X-IEP) is quantitative and offers more information than immunoelectrophoresis (IEP), we selected X-IEP to study various physiologic and pathologic effects on the antigen composition of mouse serum. We therefore needed and X-IEP map of normal mouse serum. This paper presents one that we have developed, along with brief(More)
Increases in the use and application of pyrethroid insecticides have resulted in concern regarding potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. Methods for the detection of pyrethroids in receiving waters are required to monitor environmental levels of these insecticides. One method employed for the identification of causes of toxicity in aquatic samples is the(More)
Crossed immunoelectrophoresis (X-IEP) revealed several abnormalities in serum proteins from patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), tuberculosis (TB), and cystic fibrosis (CF). The two quite different kinds of pulmonary disease, one acute (ARDS) and the other chronic (TB and CF) exhibited serum changes specific for each disease and(More)
The limitations that human operators impose on task execution are rarely integrated into simulations of complex systems, resulting in considerable loss of outcome fidelity. A discrete-event simulation tool, Micro Saint, was used to stochastically model the impact of human interactions in a comprehensive model of the next generation US Navy destroyer, DD21,(More)
The current study investigated the potential of vegetated drainage ditches for mitigating the impact of agricultural irrigation runoff on downstream aquatic ecosystems. Water column toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas),and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was measured for 12 h or less at the ditch inflow and outflow, using custom-built in(More)