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Neutron rem meters are routinely used for real-time field measurements of neutron dose equivalent where neutron spectra are unknown or poorly characterized. These meters are designed so that their response per unit fluence approximates an appropriate fluence-to-dose conversion function. Typically, a polyethylene moderator assembly surrounds a thermal(More)
The photoneutron yields produced in different components of the medical accelerator heads evaluated in these studies (24-MV Clinac 2500 and a Clinac 2100C/2300C running in the 10-MV, 15-MV, 18-MV and 20-MV modes) were calculated by the EGS4 Monte Carlo code using a modified version of the Combinatorial Geometry of MORSE-CG. Actual component dimensions and(More)
The positron emitter 17F has been identified for the first time as a radioactive contaminant formed during 13N production. It was determined that 17F made up 18% of the short-lived radioactivity previously thought to be exclusively 15O. Mathematical deconvolution of decay curve data was employed as a complement to radioanalytical techniques. The nuclidic(More)
The shielding of positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT (computed tomography) facilities presents special challenges. The 0.511 MeV annihilation photons associated with positron decay are much higher energy than other diagnostic radiations. As a result, barrier shielding may be required in floors and ceilings as well as adjacent walls. Since the(More)
We have simulated the head geometry of a Varian Clinac 2100C/2300C medical accelerator in a Monte Carlo calculation to produce photoneutrons and transport them through the head shielding into a typical therapy room (modeled by a test cell at Varian Associates). The fast neutron leakage fluence and energy spectra have been calculated at 7 positions around(More)
Compositional analyses of samples of soft tissue and lung substitutes used in the construction of anthropomorphic radiotherapy phantoms were performed for products from Alderson Research Laboratories Inc., Kyoto Scientific Specimens Company/Capintec Inc., Humanoid Systems Inc., Radiology Support Devices Inc., and The Phantom Laboratory Inc. To assess(More)
Optimum shielding of the radiation from particle accelerators requires knowledge of the attenuation characteristics of the shielding material. The most common material for shielding this radiation is concrete, which can be made using various materials of different densities as aggregates. These different concrete mixes can have very different attenuation(More)
Fluorodeoxyglucose labeled with 18F (18F-FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in positron emission tomography (PET). Fluorine-18-labeled FDG is used as a diagnostic tool in PET studies to monitor the physiology of the brain, diagnose heart function and disease, and to image cancerous tumors. At the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA),(More)
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