Jeff Crandall

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Two nonlinear constitutive models were used to describe the dynamic viscoelastic behavior of brain tissue. Small disc-shaped samples of bovine brain tissue were tested in simple shear using forced vibrations (0.5 to 200 Hz) with finite amplitudes (up to 20% Lagrangian shear strain). The samples response to simple, double, and triple harmonic inputs was(More)
The objective of this study was to produce linear and nonlinear viscoelastic models of eight major ligaments in the human ankle/foot complex for use in computer models of the lower extremity. The ligaments included in this study were the anterior talofibular (ATaF), anterior tibiofibular (ATiF), anterior tibiotalar (ATT), calcaneofibular (CF), posterior(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether using a finite-element (FE) mesh composed entirely of hexahedral elements to model cortical and trabecular bone (all-hex model) would provide more accurate simulations than those with variable thickness shell elements for cortical bone and hexahedral elements for trabecular bone (hex-shell model) in the(More)
Axial loading of the foot/ankle complex is an important injury mechanism in vehicular trauma that is responsible for severe injuries such as calcaneal and tibial pilon fractures. Axial loading may be applied to the leg externally, by the toepan and/or pedals, as well as internally, by active muscle tension applied through the Achilles tendon during(More)
INTRODUCTION During the last two decades changes in vehicle design and increase in the number of the light truck vehicles (LTVs) and vans have led to changes in pedestrian injury profile. Due to the dynamic nature of the pedestrian crashes biomechanical aspects of collisions can be better evaluated in field studies. DESIGN AND SETTING s: The Pedestrian(More)
The accuracy of the surface extraction of magnetic resonance images of highly congruent joints with thin articular cartilage layers has a significant effect on the percentage errors and reproducibility of quantitative measurements (e.g., thickness and volume) of the articular cartilage. Traditional techniques such as gradient-based edge detection are not(More)
This paper develops a method for studying pedestrian to car impacts through detailed multi-body modeling of various pedestrian anthropometries and vehicle types. The pedestrian models constitute a multi-body representation of the global joint kinematics and inertia for five representative body sizes. Advanced injury criteria are defined for the pedestrian(More)
OBJECTIVES The present study examined the influence of age on the morbidity and mortality of pedestrian victims while controlling for confounding factors. METHODS The Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) database was used for a cross-sectional study to compare the outcome of senior (age >or=60 years) and adult (age 19 to 50 years) pedestrian victims. The(More)
This article reviews the attributes of the human surrogates most commonly used in injury biomechanics research. In particular, the merits of human cadavers, human volunteers, animals, dummies, and computational models are assessed relative to their ability to characterize the living human response and injury in an impact environment. Although data obtained(More)