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Two nonlinear constitutive models were used to describe the dynamic viscoelastic behavior of brain tissue. Small disc-shaped samples of bovine brain tissue were tested in simple shear using forced vibrations (0.5 to 200 Hz) with finite amplitudes (up to 20% Lagrangian shear strain). The samples response to simple, double, and triple harmonic inputs was(More)
INTRODUCTION During the last two decades changes in vehicle design and increase in the number of the light truck vehicles (LTVs) and vans have led to changes in pedestrian injury profile. Due to the dynamic nature of the pedestrian crashes biomechanical aspects of collisions can be better evaluated in field studies. DESIGN AND SETTING s: The Pedestrian(More)
The objective of this study was to produce linear and nonlinear viscoelastic models of eight major ligaments in the human ankle/foot complex for use in computer models of the lower extremity. The ligaments included in this study were the anterior talofibular (ATaF), anterior tibiofibular (ATiF), anterior tibiotalar (ATT), calcaneofibular (CF), posterior(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether using a finite-element (FE) mesh composed entirely of hexahedral elements to model cortical and trabecular bone (all-hex model) would provide more accurate simulations than those with variable thickness shell elements for cortical bone and hexahedral elements for trabecular bone (hex-shell model) in the(More)
Forced dorsiflexion in frontal vehicle crashes is considered a common cause of injury to the ankle joint. Although a few studies have been published on the dynamic fracture tolerance of the ankle in dorsiflexion, this work reexamines the topic with increased statistical power, adds an evaluation of articular cartilage injury, and utilizes methods to detect(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the topography and to measure thicknesses, surface areas and volumes in the cartilage layers of the ankle. METHODS Twelve cadaveric ankle joints were disarticulated and the cartilage surfaces of each bone were imaged with a highly accurate (+/-2 microm) stereophotography system (ATOS). The cartilage was then dissolved and the(More)
The objective of this study was to provide data on the structural tolerance and material properties of the human femur in dynamic bending. Fifteen (15) isolated femurs from eight (8) males were tested in either posterior-to-anterior or lateral-to-medial three-point bending. The failure moment was 458 +/- 95 Nm and did not differ significantly with loading(More)
This article reviews the attributes of the human surrogates most commonly used in injury biomechanics research. In particular, the merits of human cadavers, human volunteers, animals, dummies, and computational models are assessed relative to their ability to characterize the living human response and injury in an impact environment. Although data obtained(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the injury risk between rear-facing (RFCS) and forward-facing (FFCS) car seats for children less than 2 years of age in the USA. METHODS Data were extracted from a US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration vehicle crash database for the years 1988-2003. Children 0-23 months of age restrained in an RFCS or FFCS when riding in(More)