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Closely related pathogens may differ dramatically in host range, but the molecular, genetic, and evolutionary basis for these differences remains unclear. In many Gram- negative bacteria, including the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, type III effectors (TTEs) are essential for pathogenicity, instrumental in structuring host range, and exhibit wide(More)
Diverse gram-negative bacteria deliver effector proteins into the cells of their eukaryotic hosts using the type III secretion system. Collectively, these type III effector proteins function to optimize the host cell environment for bacterial growth. Type III effector proteins are essential for the virulence of Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas spp.,(More)
Pseudomonas syringae strains deliver variable numbers of type III effector proteins into plant cells during infection. These proteins are required for virulence, because strains incapable of delivering them are nonpathogenic. We implemented a whole-genome, high-throughput screen for identifying P. syringae type III effector genes. The screen relied on FACS(More)
Pseudomonas fluorescens is a genetically and physiologically diverse species of bacteria present in many habitats and in association with plants. This species of bacteria produces a large array of secondary metabolites with potential as natural products. P. fluorescens isolate WH6 produces Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF), a predicted small peptide or amino(More)
GENE-counter is a complete Perl-based computational pipeline for analyzing RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) data for differential gene expression. In addition to its use in studying transcriptomes of eukaryotic model organisms, GENE-counter is applicable for prokaryotes and non-model organisms without an available genome reference sequence. For alignments,(More)
Many Gram-negative bacteria use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to establish associations with their hosts. The T3SS is a conduit for direct injection of type-III effector proteins into host cells, where they manipulate the host for the benefit of the infecting bacterium. For plant-associated pathogens, the variations in number and amino acid sequences(More)
Innate immunity in plants can be triggered by microbe- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is often suppressed by pathogen effectors delivered into the host cell. Plants can overcome pathogen suppression of PTI and reestablish pathogen resistance through effector-triggered immunity(More)
Long-term depression (LTD) in sensory cortices depends on the activation of NMDA receptors. Here, we report that in visual cortical slices, the induction of LTD (but not long-term potentiation) also requires the activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. Using immunolesions in combination with agonists and antagonists, we(More)
Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread bacterial pathogen that causes disease on a broad range of economically important plant species. Pathogenicity of P. syringae strains is dependent on the type III secretion system, which secretes a suite of up to about thirty virulence 'effector' proteins into the host cytoplasm where they subvert the eukaryotic cell(More)
The avrPphF locus from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, the causative agent of bean halo-blight disease, encodes proteins which either enhance virulence on susceptible hosts or elicit defense responses on hosts carrying the R1 resistance gene. Here we present the crystal structures of the two proteins from the avrPphF operon. The structure of AvrPphF(More)