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Antagonists of adenosine A2A receptors (A2A-antagonists) with different chemical structures have been developed by several pharmaceutical companies for the potential treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Pharmacological characterization of these antagonists was incomplete, and different assay conditions were used in different labs. Therefore, we characterized(More)
Inhibition of cardiac late sodium current (late I(Na)) is a strategy to suppress arrhythmias and sodium-dependent calcium overload associated with myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Current inhibitors of late I(Na) are unselective and can be proarrhythmic. This study introduces GS967(More)
Human nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel (Na(v)1.7), a target of significant interest for the development of antinociceptive agents, is blocked by low nanomolar concentrations of (-)-tetrodotoxin(TTX) but not (+)-saxitoxin (STX) and (+)-gonyautoxin-III (GTX-III). These findings question the long-accepted view that the 1.7 isoform is both tetrodotoxin-(More)
BACKGROUND The challenges in developing any A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)-AdoR) agonist involve having the desired effect on target tissue while avoiding side effects due to activation of A(1)-AdoR on other tissues. A(1)-AdoR de-sensitization leading to tachyphylaxis is also another challenge. OBJECTIVES The major goal of this review is twofold: to(More)
This review provides a molecular perspective of partial agonism at the A(1) adenosine receptor. The structure-activity relationships (SAR) for affinity and intrinsic efficacy of analogues of the full agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) are emphasized. Both general models of activation of G protein-coupled receptors and specific molecular models of the(More)
BACKGROUND Inherited human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) deficiency reduces the risk for alcoholism. Kudzu plants and extracts have been used for 1,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat alcoholism. Kudzu contains daidzin, which inhibits ALDH-2 and suppresses heavy drinking in rodents. Decreased drinking due to ALDH-2 inhibition is(More)
SC-71952, a substituted analog of dithiobisnicotinic acid dimethyl ester, was identified as a potent inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). When tested in an in vitro assay, the concentration of SC-71952 required for half-maximal inhibition was 1 microm. The potency of SC-71952 was enhanced 200-fold by preincubation of the inhibitor with(More)
The selective, high affinity A2B adenosine receptor (AdoR) antagonists that were synthesized by several research groups should aid in determining the role of the A2B AdoR in inflammatory diseases like asthma or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and angiogenic diseases like diabetic retinopathy or cancer. CV Therapeutics scientists discovered the selective, high(More)
There is no effective treatment for cocaine addiction despite extensive knowledge of the neurobiology of drug addiction. Here we show that a selective aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH-2) inhibitor, ALDH2i, suppresses cocaine self-administration in rats and prevents cocaine- or cue-induced reinstatement in a rat model of cocaine relapse-like behavior. We also(More)
New inhibitors of palmitoyl-CoA oxidation are based on the introduction of nitrogen heterocycles in the 'Western Portion' of the molecule. SAR studies led to the discovery of CVT-4325 (shown), a potent FOXi (IC50=380 nM rat mitochondria) with favorable PK properties (F=93%, t(1/2)=13.6h, dog).