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1. Ca2+ liberation induced in Xenopus oocytes by a poorly metabolized derivative of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate; 3-F-InsP3) was visualized using a video-rate confocal microscope to image fluorescence signals reported by the indicator dye calcium green-1. 2. Low (10-30 nM) intracellular concentrations of(More)
Liberation of sequestered Ca2+ ions in Xenopus oocytes by the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InP3) occurs from functionally discrete sites, which are spaced at intervals of several microns and probably represent clusterings of InsP3 receptor/channels (InsP3R) in the endoplasmic reticulum. As well as requiring InsP3, opening of release(More)
We investigate the unsteady aerodynamic forces and energy transfer associated with harmonic surging (streamwise) and plunging (transverse) motion of a thin airfoil at low Reynolds number. Two-dimensional unsteady flows are simulated over a large range of amplitude and reduced-frequency of the oscillatory motion using the immersed boundary projection method,(More)
We investigate the forces and unsteady flow structures associated with harmonic oscillations of an airfoil in the streamwise (surging) and transverse (plunging) directions in two-dimensional simulations at low Reynolds number. For the surging case, we show that there are specific frequencies where the wake instability synchronizes with the unsteady motion(More)
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