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Although the arthritis symptoms observed in the K/BxN model have been shown to be dependent on the functions of T and B cells specific to the self antigen glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, less is known about the in vivo roles of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cells in the pathology of K/BxN mice. We determined the quantitative and functional(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis is a joint-specific autoimmune inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The K/BxN mouse is a model of rheumatoid arthritis that is thought to be mainly due to autoantibody-mediated inflammatory responses. We showed previously that homeostatic proliferation of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells is required for disease initiation in the K/BxN(More)
Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial for maintaining T cell tolerance, but their role in humoral autoimmunity remains unclear. To address this, we combined a model of autoantibody-dependent arthritis (K/BxN) with Foxp3 mutant scurfy mice to generate Treg-deficient K/BxN mice, referred to as K/BxNsf mice. The disease symptoms of K/BxNsf mice were(More)
Although bacterial LPS has been used to boost the susceptibility to antibody-induced arthritis, the mechanism of the action of LPS remains to be clarified. We investigated whether signals triggered by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 mediate the effects of LPS in the context of anti-type II collagen-induced arthritis. The mice defective in the Tlr-4 gene(More)
Regulatory T (Tr) cells have been shown to arise in the periphery during induction of peripheral tolerance. However, the mechanism involved remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in the peripheral induction of regulatory phenotypes in the conventional CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. Upon(More)
Follicular helper T (TFH) cells are recently highlighted as their crucial role for humoral immunity to infection as well as their abnormal control to induce autoimmune disease. During an infection, naïve T cells are differentiating into TFH cells which mediate memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells in germinal center (GC). TFH cells are characterized by(More)
The cytokines IL-4 and IFN-gamma exert biologically antagonistic effects that in part reflect opposing influences on gene transcription. While the molecular mechanisms for IL-4-mediated transcription activation have been extensively studied, little is known about molecular mechanisms required for IL-4 inhibition of IFN-gamma signaling. We have investigated(More)
K/BxN serum can transfer arthritis to normal mice owing to the abundant autoantibodies it contains, which trigger innate inflammatory cascades in joints. Little is known about whether gut-residing microbes affect host susceptibility to autoantibody-mediated arthritis. To address this, we fed C57BL/6 mice with water containing a mixture of antibiotics(More)
Clostridium difficile toxin A causes acute colitis associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and increased production of proinflammatory mediators. Although CX3CL1 (fractalkine) plays a role in chemoattracting monocytes/macrophages, NK cells, and T cells, little information is available on the regulated expression of CX3CL1 in response to toxin A(More)
Strength of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, coreceptors, costimulation, antigen-presenting cell type, and cytokines all play crucial roles in determining the efficiency with which type 2 T lymphocytes (Th2, Tc2) develop from uncommitted precursors. To investigate in vivo regulatory mechanisms that control the population of type 2 T cells and disease(More)