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Metformin is one of the most commonly used first line drugs for type II diabetes. Metformin lowers serum glucose levels by activating 5'-AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), which maintains energy homeostasis by directly sensing the AMP/ATP ratio. AMPK plays a central role in food intake and energy metabolism through its activities in central nervous system and(More)
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is activated by DNA strand breaks and participates in DNA repair. Its regulatory subunit, Ku autoantigen, binds to DNA and recruits the catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). We show here a new role of DNA-PK in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). The Ku-DNA binding activity, the levels of Ku70/Ku80 and DNA-PKcs in(More)
Tumor hypoxia contributes to the progression of a malignant phenotype and resistance to ionizing radiation and anticancer drug therapy. Many of these effects in hypoxic tumor cells are mediated by expression of specific set of genes whose relation to therapy resistance is poorly understood. In this study, we revealed that DNA-dependent protein kinase(More)
In the present study, we examined the modulation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activity and expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) after exposure to anticancer drugs. Anticancer drugs induced HSF1 DNA-binding activity, and this was followed by an increase of mitochondrial HSP75 and HSP60 levels and concurrent decrease of cytoplasmic HSP70 levels. Unlike(More)
In this study, we investigated possible engagement of NF-kappaB and Ku autoantigen (Ku) activation in development of multidrug resistance (MDR) and circumvention of MDR by modulation of NF-kappaB and Ku. The NF-kappaB activity and NF-kappaB p65 subunit level were constitutively higher in MDR cells than in drug-sensitive parental cells. Interestingly, a(More)
Current concepts of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) center on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and dopamine has been considered to be a major source of ROS. Recently, it has been shown in a postmortem study that nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) was observed in dopaminergic neurons of patient with PD.(More)
The failure to treat metastatic cancer with multidrug resistance is a major problem for successful cancer therapy, and the molecular basis for the association of metastatic phenotype with resistance to therapy is still unclear. In this study, we revealed that various metastatic cancer cells showed consistently higher levels of antiapoptotic proteins,(More)
To provide an improved understanding of the molecular basis of the aging process, it is necessary to measure biological age on a tissue-specific basis. The role of DNA damage has emerged as a significant mechanism for determination of life span, and DNA repair genes and stress-response genes are also implicated in the aging process. In the present study, we(More)
We showed that the drug sensitivity of multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells could be enhanced by fractionated irradiation. The molecular changes associated with fractionated radiation-induced chemosensitization were characterized. Irradiated cells of the multidrug-resistant CEM/MDR sublines (CEM/MDR/IR1, 2 and 3) showed a loss of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and(More)
Since DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) has been known to play a protective role against drug-induced apoptosis, the role of DNA-PK in the regulation of mitochondrial heat shock proteins by anticancer drugs was examined. The levels of basal and drug-induced mitochondrial heat shock proteins of drug-sensitive parental cells were higher than those of(More)
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