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We study the query complexity of computing a function f : {0, 1} n → R + in expectation. This requires the algorithm on input x to output a nonnegative random variable whose expectation equals f (x), using as few queries to the input x as possible. We exactly characterize both the randomized and the quantum query complexity by two polynomial degrees, the… (More)

We investigate two-party cryptographic protocols that are secure under assumptions motivated by physics, namely special relativity and quantum mechanics. In particular, we discuss the security of bit commitment in so-called split models, i.e. models in which at least one of the parties is not allowed to communicate during certain phases of the protocol. We… (More)

A serious concern with quantum key distribution (QKD) schemes is that, when under attack, the quantum devices in a real-life implementation may behave differently than modeled in the security proof. This can lead to real-life attacks against provably secure QKD schemes. In this work, we show that the standard BB84 QKD scheme is one-sided device-independent.… (More)

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