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The leaf surface is the contact point between plants and the environment and plays a crucial role in mediating biotic and abiotic interactions. Here, we took a phylogenetic approach to investigate the function, trade-offs, and evolution of leaf surface traits in the milkweeds (Asclepias). Across 47 species, we found trichome densities of up to 3000(More)
We evaluated the hypothesis that CO(2) uptake by a subalpine, coniferous forest is limited by cool temperature during the growing season. Using the eddy covariance approach we conducted observations of net ecosystem CO(2) exchange (NEE) across two growing seasons. When pooled for the entire growing season during both years, light-saturated net ecosystem(More)
Tropical forest soils are known to emit large amounts of reactive nitrogen oxide compounds, often referred to collectively as NOy (NOy = NO + NO2 + HNO3 + organic nitrates). Plants are known to assimilate and emit NOy and it is therefore likely that plant canopies affect the atmospheric concentration of reactive nitrogen compounds by assimilating or(More)
The transition between wintertime net carbon loss and springtime net carbon assimilation has an important role in controlling the annual rate of carbon uptake in coniferous forest ecosystems. We studied the contributions of springtime carbon assimilation to the total annual rate of carbon uptake and the processes involved in the winter-to-spring transition(More)
Stem water content, ice fraction, and losses in xylem conductivity were monitored from November 1996 to October 1997 in an even-aged stand of Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) near Potlatch, Idaho, USA. A time domain reflectometry (TDR) probe was used to continuously monitor stem water contents and ice fractions. Stem sapwood water contents measured with TDR(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent intercellular signal for defense, development, and metabolism in animals and plants. In mammals, highly regulated nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) generate NO. NOS homologs exist in some prokaryotes, but direct evidence for NO production by these proteins has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate that a NOS in plant-pathogenic(More)
Ecosystem water-use efficiency (eWUE; the ratio of net ecosystem productivity to evapotranspiration rate) is a complex landscape-scale parameter controlled by both physical and biological processes occurring in soil and plants. Leaf WUE (lWUE; the ratio of leaf CO(2) assimilation rate to transpiration rate) is controlled at short time scales principally by(More)
Precipitation patterns including the magnitude, timing, and seasonality of rainfall are predicted to undergo substantial alterations in arid regions in the future, and desert organisms may be more responsive to such changes than to shifts in only mean annual rainfall. Soil biocrust communities (consisting of cyanobacteria, lichen, and mosses) are ubiquitous(More)
Pollutants like O(3) and NO(2) enter leaves through the stomata and cause damage during reactions with components of biological cell membranes. The steady-state flux rates of these gases into the leaf are determined by a series of physical and biochemical resistances including stomatal aperture, reactions occurring within the cell wall and the ability of(More)