Jed C. Macosko

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The pathology of Huntington's disease is characterized by neuronal degeneration and inclusions containing N-terminal fragments of mutant huntingtin (htt). To study htt aggregation, we examined purified htt fragments in vitro, finding globular and protofibrillar intermediates participating in the genesis of mature fibrils. These intermediates were high in(More)
Although the properties of single kinesin molecular motors are well understood, it is not clear whether multiple motors pulling a single vesicle in a cell cooperate or interfere with one another. To learn how small numbers of motors interact, microtubule gliding assays were carried out with full-length Drosophila kinesin in a novel motility medium(More)
The standard codon table is a primary tool for basic understanding of molecular biology. In the minds of many, the table’s orderly arrangement of bases and amino acids is synonymous with the true genetic code, i.e., the biological coding principle itself. However, developments in the field reveal a much more complex and interesting picture. In this article,(More)
Motor proteins convert chemical energy into work, thereby generating persistent motion of cellular and subcellular objects. The velocities of motor proteins as a function of opposing loads have been previously determined in vitro for single motors. These single molecule “force–velocity curves” have been useful for elucidating motor kinetics and for(More)
A fairly recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) event in yeast enables the effects of gene duplication and subsequent functional divergence to be characterized. We examined 15 ohnolog pairs (i.e. paralogs from a WGD) out of c. 500 Saccharomyces cerevisiae ohnolog pairs that have persisted over an estimated 100 million years of evolution. These 15 pairs were(More)
The molecular motor gliding assay, in which a microtubule or other filament moves across a surface coated with motors, has provided much insight into how molecular motors work. The kinesin-microtubule system is also a strong candidate for the job of nanoparticle transporter in nanotechnology devices. In most cases, several motors transport each filament.(More)
Vesicle transport in cultured chick motoneurons was studied over a period of 3 days using motion-enhanced differential interference contrast (MEDIC) microscopy, an improved version of video-enhanced DIC. After 3 days in vitro (DIV), the average vesicle velocity was about 30% less than after 1 DIV. In observations at 1, 2 and 3 DIV, larger vesicles moved(More)
Gliding assays of motor proteins such as kinesin, dynein and myosin are commonly carried out with fluorescently labeled microtubules or filamentous actin. In this paper, we show that speckled microtubules (MTs), prepared by copolymerizing 98% unlabeled tubulin with 2% rhodamine-labeled tubulin, can be localized to +/-7.4 nm (24 measurements) in images(More)
Using the force sensor of an atomic force microscope, motor forces of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase were measured during active replication of a short DNA transcript. At low load forces the polymerase is mechanically slowed, whereas at high force (approximately 15 piconewton) it stalls. From recordings of estimated polymerase(More)