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The pathology of Huntington's disease is characterized by neuronal degeneration and inclusions containing N-terminal fragments of mutant huntingtin (htt). To study htt aggregation, we examined purified htt fragments in vitro, finding globular and protofibrillar intermediates participating in the genesis of mature fibrils. These intermediates were high in(More)
Although the properties of single kinesin molecular motors are well understood, it is not clear whether multiple motors pulling a single vesicle in a cell cooperate or interfere with one another. To learn how small numbers of motors interact, microtubule gliding assays were carried out with full-length Drosophila kinesin in a novel motility medium(More)
The molecular motor gliding assay, in which a microtubule or other filament moves across a surface coated with motors, has provided much insight into how molecular motors work. The kinesin-microtubule system is also a strong candidate for the job of nanoparticle transporter in nanotechnology devices. In most cases, several motors transport each filament.(More)
Using the force sensor of an atomic force microscope, motor forces of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase were measured during active replication of a short DNA transcript. At low load forces the polymerase is mechanically slowed, whereas at high force (approximately 15 piconewton) it stalls. From recordings of estimated polymerase(More)
Vesicle transport in cultured chick motoneurons was studied over a period of 3 days using motion-enhanced differential interference contrast (MEDIC) microscopy, an improved version of video-enhanced DIC. After 3 days in vitro (DIV), the average vesicle velocity was about 30% less than after 1 DIV. In observations at 1, 2 and 3 DIV, larger vesicles moved(More)
Gliding assays of motor proteins such as kinesin, dynein and myosin are commonly carried out with fluorescently labeled microtubules or filamentous actin. In this paper, we show that speckled microtubules (MTs), prepared by copolymerizing 98% unlabeled tubulin with 2% rhodamine-labeled tubulin, can be localized to +/-7.4 nm (24 measurements) in images(More)
Video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy with background subtraction has made visible many structures and processes in living cells. In video-enhanced differential interference contrast, the background image is stored manually by defocusing the microscope before images are acquired. We have updated and improved video-enhanced(More)
Motor proteins convert chemical energy into work, thereby generating persistent motion of cellular and subcellular objects. The velocities of motor proteins as a function of opposing loads have been previously determined in vitro for single motors. These single molecule “force–velocity curves” have been useful for elucidating motor kinetics and for(More)
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) machines can sequence millions of DNA strands in a single run, such as oligonucleotide (oligo) libraries comprising millions to trillions of discrete oligo sequences. Capillary electrophoresis is an attractive technique to select tight binding oligos or "aptamers" because it requires minimal sample volumes (e.g., 100 nL) and(More)