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During autophagy a crescent shaped like membrane is formed, which engulfs the material that is to be degraded. This membrane grows further until its edges fuse to form the double membrane covered autophagosome. Atg8 is a protein, which is required for this initial step of autophagy. Therefore, a multistage conjugation process of newly synthesized Atg8 to(More)
The gamma-aminobutyrate type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) is a ubiquitin-like modifier, and is implicated in a variety of membrane trafficking and fusion events that are crucial to synaptic plasticity, autophagy and apoptosis. However, important aspects of GABARAP function and regulation remain poorly understood. We review the current state of(More)
Autophagy, a pathway primarily relevant for cell survival, and apoptosis, a process invariably leading to cell death, are the two main mechanisms of cellular self-destruction, which are essential in cell growth, neurodegeneration, tumor suppression, stress and immune response. Currently, a potential crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy is subject to(More)
The 4-aminobutyrate type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) is a versatile adaptor protein that plays an important role in intracellular vesicle trafficking, particularly in neuronal cells. We have investigated the structural determinants underlying the interaction of GABARAP with calreticulin using spectroscopic and crystallographic techniques.(More)
In eukaryotic cells, macroautophagy is now recognised as the most important mechanism for degradation of long-lived proteins and complete organelles, thus enabling cells to sustain their function under conditions of stress, such as nutrient deprivation, hypoxia or the presence of intracellular pathogens (for recent reviews, see [1,2]). While the core(More)
Apoptosis and autophagy are fundamental homeostatic processes in eukaryotic organisms fulfilling essential roles in development and adaptation. Recently, the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 has been reported to also inhibit autophagy, thus establishing a potential link between these pathways, but the mechanistic details are only beginning to emerge. Here we(More)
The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor-associated protein is a versatile adaptor protein playing an important role in intracellular vesicle trafficking, particularly in neuronal cells. We present the X-ray structure of the soluble form of human GABA(A) receptor-associated protein complexed with a high-affinity synthetic peptide at 1.3 A(More)
The GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) plays an important role in intracellular trafficking of several proteins. It undergoes a C-terminal lipidation process that enables anchoring in the cytosolic leaflet of cellular membranes. While the three-dimensional structure of GABARAP itself has been determined, structural investigation of complexes with(More)
4-Aminobutyrate type A (GABA(A)) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) is a ubiquitin-like modifier implicated in the intracellular trafficking of GABA(A) receptors, and belongs to a family of proteins involved in intracellular vesicular transport processes, such as autophagy and intra-Golgi transport. In this article, it is demonstrated that calreticulin(More)