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Many apoptotic signaling pathways are directed to mitochondria, where they initiate the release of apoptogenic proteins and open the proposed mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) pore that ultimately results in the activation of the caspase proteases responsible for cell disassembly. BNIP3 (formerly NIP3) is a member of the Bcl-2 family that is(More)
The clinical development of immunotoxins in the treatment of solid tumors has been impeded in part, by the induction of an immune response directed primarily against the toxin moiety. Bouganin, a type I ribosome inactivating protein isolated from the leaf of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd, was mutated to remove the T-cell epitopes while preserving the(More)
Nip3 (nineteen kD interacting protein-3) is an E1B 19K and Bcl-2 binding protein of unknown function. Nip3 is detected as both a 60- and 30-kD protein in vivo and in vitro and exhibits strong homologous interaction in a yeast two-hybrid system indicating that it can homodimerize. Nip3 is expressed in mitochondria and a mutant (Nip3(163)) lacking the(More)
BNIP3 (formerly NIP3) is a pro-apoptotic, mitochondrial protein classified in the Bcl-2 family based on limited sequence homology to the Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain and COOH-terminal transmembrane (TM) domain. BNIP3 expressed in yeast and mammalian cells interacts with survival promoting proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and CED-9. Typically, the BH3 domain of(More)
Hypoxia (lack of oxygen) is a physiological stress often associated with solid tumors. Hypoxia correlates with poor prognosis since hypoxic regions within tumors are considered apoptosisresistant. Autophagy (cellular "self digestion") has been associated with hypoxia during cardiac ischemia and metabolic stress as a survival mechanism. However, although(More)
Hypoxic regions within solid tumors are often resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. BNIP3 (Bcl-2/E1B 19 kDa interacting protein) is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that is expressed in hypoxic regions of tumors. During hypoxia, BNIP3 expression is increased in many cell types and upon forced overexpression BNIP3 induces cell death. Herein, we(More)
We have identified Nix, a homolog of the E1B 19K/Bcl-2 binding and pro-apoptotic protein Nip3. Human and murine Nix have a 56 and 53% amino acid identity to human and murine Nip3, respectively. The carboxyl terminus of Nix, including a transmembrane domain, is highly homologous to Nip3 but it bears a longer and distinct asparagine/proline-rich N terminus.(More)
PURPOSE A Phase I dose-escalation study was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the immunotoxin VB4-845 in patients with nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) refractory to or intolerant of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Secondary objectives included evaluation of the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and(More)
To identify genes involved in etoposide drug response, we used promoter trap mutagenesis to isolate an etoposide-resistant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. This resistant CHO-K1 line, named E91, showed cross-resistance to C(2)-ceramide (N-acetylsphingosine). The promoter trap retrovirus was found integrated into intron 1-2 of the Dlc-2 (Stard13)(More)
VB6-845 is a recombinant immunotoxin comprised of deBouganin (a de-immunized plant toxin) genetically linked to an epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-targeting humanized Fab fragment (4D5MOCB). EpCAM is highly expressed on a wide range of epithelial tumors but has limited expression on most normal epithelia and therefore represents an excellent(More)