Jeannette M. Whitcomb

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Although combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a considerable improvement in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the emergence of resistant virus is a significant obstacle to the effective management of HIV infection and AIDS. We have developed a novel phenotypic drug susceptibility assay that may be(More)
Most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains require either the CXCR4 or CCR5 chemokine receptor to efficiently enter cells. Blocking viral binding to these coreceptors is an attractive therapeutic target. Currently, several coreceptor antagonists are being evaluated in clinical trials that require characterization of coreceptor tropism for(More)
The development of a quantitative understanding of viral evolution and the fitness landscape in HIV-1 drug resistance is a formidable challenge given the large number of available drugs and drug resistance mutations. We analyzed a dataset measuring the in vitro fitness of 70,081 virus samples isolated from HIV-1 subtype B infected individuals undergoing(More)
Wild-type viruses from the ViroLogic phenotype-genotype database were evaluated to determine the upper confidence limit of the drug susceptibility distributions, or "biological cutoffs," for the PhenoSense HIV phenotypic drug susceptibility assay. Definition of the natural variation in drug susceptibility in wild-type human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type(More)
BACKGROUND CXCR4-using virus is associated with higher viral load and accelerated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression. Additionally, CCR5 antagonists may not reduce the HIV-1 RNA load when mixed/dual-tropic or CXCR4-using virus is present. The determination of coreceptor tropism may be required before CCR5 or CXCR4 antagonists are(More)
In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype B, CXCR4 coreceptor use ranges from approximately 20% in early infection to approximately 50% in advanced disease. Coreceptor use by non-subtype B HIV is less well characterized. We studied coreceptor tropism of subtype A and D HIV-1 collected from 68 pregnant, antiretroviral drug-naive Ugandan women(More)
Although fitness landscapes are central to evolutionary theory, so far no biologically realistic examples for large-scale fitness landscapes have been described. Most currently available biological examples are restricted to very few loci or alleles and therefore do not capture the high dimensionality characteristic of real fitness landscapes. Here we(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical significance of hypersusceptibility to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI). DESIGN Analysis of a prospective clinical trial cohort. PATIENTS NNRTI-naive patients failing a stable antiretroviral regimen. MEASUREMENTS HIV phenotype, HIV RNA, and CD4 cell counts were prospectively collected after(More)
Suboptimal treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) often results in the rapid selection of drug-resistant virus. Several amino acid substitutions at position 190 of reverse transcriptase (RT) have been associated with reduced susceptibility to the NNRTI, especially(More)
CONTEXT The transmission of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been documented, but the prevalence of such transmission is unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess the spectrum and frequency of antiretroviral susceptibility among subjects with primary HIV infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Retrospective analysis of 141 subjects identified(More)