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BACKGROUND Among persons in North America who are newly infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the prevalence of transmitted resistance to antiretroviral drugs has been estimated at 1 to 11 percent. METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis of susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs before treatment and drug-resistance mutations in HIV(More)
Although combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a considerable improvement in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the emergence of resistant virus is a significant obstacle to the effective management of HIV infection and AIDS. We have developed a novel phenotypic drug susceptibility assay that may be(More)
Recently, significant numbers of individuals with primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been found to harbor viral strains with reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs. In one study, HIV from 16% of such antiretroviral-naive individuals was shown to have a susceptibility to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors(More)
The development of a quantitative understanding of viral evolution and the fitness landscape in HIV-1 drug resistance is a formidable challenge given the large number of available drugs and drug resistance mutations. We analyzed a dataset measuring the in vitro fitness of 70,081 virus samples isolated from HIV-1 subtype B infected individuals undergoing(More)
Although fitness landscapes are central to evolutionary theory, so far no biologically realistic examples for large-scale fitness landscapes have been described. Most currently available biological examples are restricted to very few loci or alleles and therefore do not capture the high dimensionality characteristic of real fitness landscapes. Here we(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW HIV entry into cells is mediated through sequential interactions between HIV envelope proteins (Env) and two cellular molecules: CD4 and a co-receptor, typically either CCR5 or CXCR4. Co-receptor preference has been associated with other viral traits; specifically, CXCR4-tropic viruses have been associated with increased host cell(More)
Ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355) is a first-in-class, monoclonal antibody inhibitor of CD4-mediated human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) entry. Multiple clinical trials with HIV-infected patients have demonstrated the antiviral activity, safety, and tolerability of ibalizumab treatment. A 9-week phase Ib study adding ibalizumab monotherapy to failing drug(More)
HIV-1 replicative capacity (RC) provides a measure of within-host fitness and is determined in the context of phenotypic drug resistance testing. However it is unclear how these in-vitro measurements relate to in-vivo processes. Here we assess RCs in a clinical setting by combining a previously published machine-learning tool, which predicts RC values from(More)
CONTEXT The transmission of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been documented, but the prevalence of such transmission is unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess the spectrum and frequency of antiretroviral susceptibility among subjects with primary HIV infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Retrospective analysis of 141 subjects identified(More)
Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are important components of most antiretroviral combination treatment regimens. Using a large collection of clinical isolates, we characterized patterns of cross-resistance among all NRTIs. Drugs were grouped by the effect of the M184V mutation: susceptibility to group 1 drugs (zidovudine, stavudine,(More)