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The metabolic characteristics of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and diminished insulin secretion are costly to measure directly. To evaluate the utility of several simple indices derived from insulin and glucose measurements, the indices were examined from 1982 to 1997 with respect to correlation with more sophisticated measures of insulin sensitivity(More)
Intrauterine exposure to diabetes is associated with an excess of diabetes and obesity in the offspring, but the effects of intrauterine exposure are confounded by genetic factors. To determine the role of the intrauterine diabetic environment per se, the prevalence of diabetes and the mean BMI were compared in siblings born before and after their mother(More)
Until recently, Type II diabetes was considered rare in children. The disease is, however, increasing among children in populations with high rates of Type II diabetes in adults. The prevalence of Type II diabetes was determined in 5274 Pima Indian children between 1967 and 1996 in three 10-year time periods, for age groups 5–9, 10–14 and 15–19 years.(More)
Lower birth weight is associated with an increased occurrence of type 2 diabetes in later life. Whether this relationship is explained by environmental or genetic factors is unknown. We have examined the potential for genetic influences by determining whether parental diabetes is associated with lower birth weight in 1,608 children of known birth weight and(More)
OBJECTIVE The 1997 American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the 1985 and 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for diabetes and hyperglycemia differ. The appropriateness of these diagnostic criteria in terms of individuals identified as abnormal and their prognosis has been debated. The purpose of this study is to compare the classifications of(More)
OBJECTIVE In short-term studies, adoption of a traditional diet is associated with reduction in metabolic abnormalities often found in populations experiencing rapid lifestyle changes. We examined the long-term effects of a self-assessed traditional or nontraditional dietary pattern on the development of type 2 diabetes in 165 nondiabetic Pima Indians. (More)
BACKGROUND The effect of hypertension on mortality was examined in 5284 Pima Indians, 1698 of whom had type 2 diabetes at baseline or developed it during follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS During a median follow-up of 12.2 years (range, 0.01 to 24.8 years), 470 nondiabetic subjects and 488 diabetic subjects died. In the nondiabetic subjects, 45 of the deaths(More)
Body mass index is widely used as a measure of adiposity in adults, but its use in children and adolescents is controversial. We assessed body mass index as a measure of adiposity in children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 20 yr examined as part of the NIH survey of health in the Pima Indian population. Body mass index (measured in 985 subjects(More)
BACKGROUND The present analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion, assessed using simple indices derived from an oral glucose tolerance test, are influenced by genetic factors, and to assess whether these genetic factors overlap with those influencing susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians. (More)
OBJECTIVE The 1997 American Diabetes Association (ADA) and 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for diabetes and hyperglycemia were evaluated and compared with respect to prediction of microvascular and macrovascular disease and mortality RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The prevalence of retinopathy and nephropathy at baseline and during the(More)